Democracy, Political Control, and Regional Geography: A Comprehensive Overview

Democracy Rules

Permanent Attributes:

  • Majority-government and respect for minority rights
  • Peaceful competition and equal opportunities
  • Ideological and political pluralism
  • Distributed power organs
  • Rule of law
  • Make grants autonomy of intermediate bodies (associations that the population can create. E.g., trades unions, as long as they are respected and within legal frames)

Varying Attributes:

  • Intensity and frequency of public participation
    • Intensity: the relevance of citizen participation
    • Frequency: lapse rate by agencies of the State
  • Fidelity electoral system: a system is the charge that is distributed through the vote. Binomial system (deputies and senators): the votes are counted per candidates and lists.
    • Advantages: system grants political stability.
    • Disadvantage: consolidate hegemonic blocs (injustice..). Increasing the representation of the second most cancels the participation of small parties

Mechanisms of Control of Political Control

Elected Official (Voting)

Institutional Controls

  • Is between the organs of state
  • Organization and actions of the opposition (relative)
  • Chamber of Deputies (oversees the actions of the state)
  • Comptroller of the Republic (oversees state spending and ensures state acts are legal)
  • Minority Law (can be discriminated by special features)
  • Constitution stipulates a set of freedoms and rights. (equal rights. Chile has not been achieved)

Regional Geography

1. Physical Map


Different heights and depths of the sea. There are two types of realities on a map:

a) Continents: There are five: EuroAsia, America (meaning the union of Europe and Asia through mountains called Ural Mountains), * Arctic (ice floating continent so it is not considered a continent), Antarctica (considered a continent because it is land). Within the continents, there are plateaus, mountains, and plains.

b) Oceans: The ocean itself is a single entity but has different names: Pacific, Atlantic (essential relations between America-Europe), Indian (warm sea), Antarctic, and Arctic ice.

Climatic Zones:

Defined by latitude (the higher the latitude, the greater the temperature difference; the lower the latitude, the smaller the temperature difference). The distribution between land and water in the hemispheres:

  • Southern Hemisphere: (there are very cold climates)
  • Northern Hemisphere: (warm climates)


Land surface areas have characteristics that give them their own identity and distinct cultural historical heritage, development level, and economic and political organization.

  • North America (starts at the Mexico border with the U.S.) are characterized by capitalism.
  • Central America (presents a presidential democracy. Rich in natural resources. The region lives on exports. Is characterized for having a mestizo identity, there are no more places like this)
  • Europe (home of the industrial revolution. Democracy predominates. Monarchies and representative republics. HDI index (Human Development Index) is associated with Europe’s most developed countries. Since the fall of the USSR: Occidental Europe (left) high development, Oriental Europe (right) is under development.
  • Russia: considered a region for its characteristics (USSR until the fall of the Berlin Wall. Is in the process of transition from socialism to capitalism. Now BRIC: Brazil, Russia, India, and China are strong states.
  • South-Western Asia: Middle East. Shaped by Islam. Is characterized by having abundant energy resources (Persian Gulf) that are not distributed evenly. Region marked by aridity. Population sparsely distributed. Israel: enemies Pakistan and Syria.
  • South Asia: Under-developed region. Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia.
  • China: considered a region by its size and power. The development of China is on the coast. There is a contrast compared to central China. Is the third largest economy in the world. 1/4 of the U.S. economy. The challenge of China is to become democratized.
  • Japan: no major natural resources. Sets of volcanic islands: corporate culture. The Japanese education is of high quality. Spends little on arms. U.S. ally.
  • South Korea: U.S. ally. Great power. Without natural resources. Investment in people and technology. Have a democratic model similar to Japan but more authoritarian.
  • Taiwan: independent country. But is not recognized by the UN due to Chinese pressure. U.S. allies.
  • Hong Kong: Chinese separated by a river. Was a colony of England and China wanted it as a great industrial town. Remains as part of China.
  • Singapore: power.
  • Africa: rich in oil and wealth. Stigma of being poor. 50% of Africans live on less than a dollar a day. Mauritius: higher per capita income. North Zone or Maghreb: Islam. Richest in oil (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya). Mediterranean climates. The rest of Africa is called Sub-Saharan (from the Sahara desert to the South). South Africa (more developed countries of Africa) heterogeneous. Recently freed from racism. Horn of Africa (poorest and conflicting countries: Ethiopia and Somalia). Africa has 53 countries of which 19 are democratic. Was the last region to be colonized.
  • Oceania, Australia, and New Zealand. No mixing. Canberra: Australia’s capital. Within Australia, Sydney is the largest city. New Guinea Island: half Asian and the other is called Papua New Guinea (country in Oceania).

Latin America


4 areas of Latin America:

  1. North America: the physical limitations (Isthmus of Tehuantepec) divides North America from Central America.
  2. Central America Isthmian: Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Belize, El Salvador. Land is the communication between North America and South America.
  3. Central America Islands: Greater Antilles (Cuba, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Puerto Rico)
  4. South America: biggest part of Latin America. Isthmus of Panama (connecting two larger land masses to Cape Horn). 2 large areas in South America:”West (left) bounded by Cordillera of the Andes. Gives rise to the Andean region (Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Chile). Rains less by the Humboldt Current. – Eastern (right) large basins and has great plains (Orinoco, Amazon, Silver). Venezuela, Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Argentina. Predominantly tropical (rain in summer).


a) occupation of the territory(this unequally occupied., people are more on the coasts) -> enec├║menes: inshore -> anec├║menes: internal limit *: mexico with the U.S. is a cultural frontier. but the Isthmus of Tehuantepec is the physical. POPULATION AM AMERICA: Cup of birth: live births per 1000 population mortality rates: deaths per 1000 inhabitants ta. Cream – (minus) ta Mortality is called natural vegetative growth or a population of women of childbearing age is from 15 to 40 years in latin am cup d the highest birth mortality q. In the south or conosur am (chile and urug arg) have low nat and mortality. (better life level d) brasil, ec, Colombian, and nat cup venez have more, but is higher mort * Infant mortality: number of children killed by 1 year per 1000 children = age. The lower this cup is the highest standard of living of the population. Chil, urug, arg, Cuba, Costa Rica has a mortality infano. very low. like conditions present it to Europe and North America (continents developed) to have a high life expectancy, low infant morta and low population grows. Economic Crec: AM America is middle class in economically developing world: 1. EXPORT mat. 2.industrializacion premiums (ISI) ISI: Import-substitution industrialization * 3. exportation of natural resources.