1.Foundation: Long time ago, many people from the U.K. decided to travel by boat (the Mayflower) to a new land to settle. This new land belonged to Great Britain. The British king George III ruled both lands. Thirteen colonies were formed there. After a while, some of the colonists talked and decided that they wanted to be a free country. They didn’t want to be under the rule of the king of England anymore, so many Patriots decided to fight for independence. That decision meant the Patriots would have to fight the huge British army, but it was important for them to fight for freedom. After the war began, a bright young patriot named Thomas Jefferson sat and wrote the Declaration of Independence in June of 1776. After it was written, many men met at the Independence Hall in Philadelphia, to talk about this document. The Revolutionary War ended in 1783. This was a very cruel war. The land that the Patriots fought for was finally independent and free from Britain. The name given to the new country was “The United States of America”. Then the Constitution was written. The United States Constitution says how the government works. It was signed on September 17, 1787. Some of the men who signed it were George Washington, Benjamin Franklin and John Adams. Some famous us presidents are:1.General George Washington: 1st U.S. president. 2.John Adams, 2nd U.S. president: Washington D.C. was declared the capital city when he was the president. 3. Abraham Lincoln, 16th U.S. president: he lead the Civil War, put an end to slavery and passed the 13th amendment. 4.Barak Obama, 44th U.S. president: he is the first African-American president of the U.S.A. 2.Caracteristics from each region: USA its composed of West, Midwest, Northeast and South.Americans often speak of their country as one of several large regions. These regions are cultural units rather than governmental units formed by history and geography and shaped by the economics, literature and folwway that all the parts of a region share. A region’s multicultural heritage as well as distinct demographic characteristics like age and occupation make regions different and special. Within several regions, language is used differently and there are strong dialects. There are also differences in Outlook and attitude based on geography. 1.The West: Native Americans still live in reservations or towns.There are many parks where there is beauty nature.Coast of California is occupied by the white settlers. 2.The Midwest: It is the fertile sole of the country. There are abundant cereal crops.Farmers are normally located separately from each other. They go to the village usually to buy supplies or to go to church. 3.The Northeast: It is the booming financial and economic center of US.NY’s World trade center.There are major urban centers.NY’s Stock Exchange is a hub for bussiness and iversors. 4.The South: it’s the most distinctive region. For southerners, slavery was acceptable. Nowadays it is a manufacturing region and there are highrise buildings. 3.Pluralism in the USA: There are two important facts about America: America is very large and America has great ethnic diversity. These two facts are fundamental when looking at the USA. Ethnic diversity is probably the most important factor influencing life in USA. Very early settlers came from Spain, later they came from Northern Europe becoming the dominant culture. Over time, immigrants came from different countries including China, Japan, Eastern and Southern Europe. Gradually, they became part of the dominant culture. The term “Melting Pot” is used to describe the mixing of different races and cultures in the USA. Despite this, the dominant culture of Northern Europe has survived. However, new immigrants have altered it.“Cultural Pluralism” is the principle that different cultures can life together peacefully. Even though many people in the US, maintain their ethnic heritage, the number of interracial marriages is increasing.




4. Education System: There are 5 stages in the US Education. The first one is Prekindergarten. It has to courses, one for 4 to 5-year-old children and the other for 5 to 6-year-old children. They learn general things about the alphabet. The second stage is Kindergarten, for 4 to 5-year-old children. They continue with the alphabet and they also learn diction words. The third stage is elementary school, it has 1st to 5th grade for 8 to 12 year old children. They learn vocabulary, math science and phonics. After this, there’s Middle school, it has 6th to 8th grade, for 12 to 14-year-old children. There are much more high-level tests. They need good marks to choose a good High School. High school in the US is for 16 to 18-year-old children, they are in their majority public. Public ones are free and they don’t use uniform. There are also Private catholic schools. These ones are expensive, they use uniforms, the buildings are smaller and they are stricter. Finally, we can find Private or Boarding schools which are smaller buildings and students sleep there instead of coming back home like in the other two types. 5. Government: 1.The Legislative (Congress) Branch consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Their responsibility is to propose and pass laws. In the system of checks and balances, they can refuse to approve president appointments and override a presidential veto. 2.The Executive Branch consists of the President, the Vice-President, the Cabinet and the 13 Departments and the independent agencies. Their responsibility is to enforce Laws and appoint Supreme Court Justices. In the system of checks and balances, they can reject any law of the Congress. 3.The Judicial Branch consists of the Supreme Court, 11 Circuit Courts of Appeals and the 94 district courts. Their responsibility is to explain and interpret laws, and make decisions in lawsuits. In the system of checks and balances, they can declare laws and actions unconstitutional.6. Symbols and Holidays: 1.Independence Day: On July 4, 1776, the U.S.A. claimed their independence from Britain. They celebrate it this day because th 4th of July the Continental Congress approved the Declaration of Independence. They celebrate it with picnics, barbecues and family gatherings. 2. Memorial Day: Memorial Day, originally called Decoration Day, is observed on the last Monday of May. It is a day of remembrance for those who have died serving the U.S.A. 3. Veterans Day: The memorial services took place on November 11, the anniversary of the end of World War I. First it was named Armistice Day and then it was changed to Veterans Day to honor all US veterans. 4. Martin Luther King: Martin Luther King Day is a national holiday held on the third Monday of January. In 1983 The Senate and the House of Representatives signed to commemorate him and his actions against racism and slavery towards the Afro-American people. 5. Columbus Day: In 1937, President Roosevelt proclaimed October 12 as “Columbus Day” and in 1971, President Nixon declared the second Monday of October a national holiday. The first recorded celebration honoring the discovery of America took place on October 12, 1792 in New York City. 6. Thanksgiving Day: The Pilgrims had much to celebrate: they had built homes in the wilderness, they had raised enough crops to keep them alive during the long coming winter, and they were at peace with their Indian neighbors. 7.Native American Day: In 1914, Red Fox James, a Blackfoot from Montana, traveled on horseback 4.000 miles soliciting the aid of governors for a holiday honoring the American Indians.  He presented his proposal to a group of governors in Washington DC on December 14, 1914 where it was adopted by 24 states.