Leadership Styles driven by fundamental Management Theories:
1) Maslow: Hierarchy of Needs
2) Herzberg: Motivator – Hygiene
3) McGregor: Theory X and Y
4) Vroom/Lawler: Expectation/Motivation Theory

What drives Performance? (Herzberg)
Hygiene factors: salary, administration, supervision/mgmt, leadership, company policy, working condition – if they are reduced, very bad. If improved, little better
Motivators: achievement, recognition, appreciation, advancement/growth, responsibility, nature of work – if reduced, isnt so bad. If improved, very positive impact.
McGregor Theory
X-theory – extrinsic motivation, people don’t like to work so you need to push them (they don’t like to work because they are saving energy).
“ Average human has a inherent dislike of work and will do all that is necessary to avoid it“

Therefore people:
– have to be controlled/monitored by management and often threatened to work hard
– avoid responsibility and need to be directed by management
– seek security within work as primary concern
à Manager rarely give their subordinates any opportunities to decide on their own/do not empower others
Y-theory – intrinsic motivation (people love to work, to change things and to achieve things).
“ Most people expend same amount of energy/ effort at work as in other spheres of their life“

Therefore people:
– have to be committed to the aims of the organization
– will be involved and engaged if they are satisfied by the job itself
– take over responsibility if there is the opportunity and an encouragement
– will solve problems with less direct supervision if they are committed and feel responsible
à Manager recognize the intellectual potential and empower their subordinates to generate value to an greater extent.
Vroom’s Expectancy’s Theory
Theory consist of 3 factors:
= Reward: What do employees perceive as adequate reward?

 Managers should find out how employees wants to be rewarded by a variety of different rewards
= Capability: How to enable employees to fulfill their tasks?
Managers should ensure training & development and empower their employees to get the opportunity to improve and/or to overcome their weaknesses
= Expectation: Do the employees get what they want?
 Managers should ensure that promises of rewards are fulfilled and make clear how and what rewards are linked to improved performance
Managing and leading people/team management

The GODS of Management
Who has developed the model? Charles Handy
What is it based on?4  Greek gods represent 4 different generic mgmt styles and cultures
What is the impact on the organization? These 4 management styles impact company cultures and depend on organizational structures and vice versa!
Is a ‘god’ or culture specific for a company?
Can be, BUT more important: It is seen more as an indicator of spotted situation of a defined unit (eg team, group, organization)
Why is it important? Recognizing if there is a mismatch between organizational culture and people stick to their specific ‘god’ will lead to a mismatch, ie INEFFICIENCYManagement Styles
Culture for which organization type characteristic?
Power culture:
= web with a central power source which steers the organization from a core. Radiating circles of power and influence connected by specialist lines, e.g. small organization led by a strong entrepreneur
Role culture:
= hierarchical and bureaucratic structure depend upon functional or specialist departments (pillars), e.g. governmental department, big Firms
Task culture:
= job- or project oriented culture where staff in different functions and on different levels freely interact. Groups, project teams or task forces are formed of particular jobs. Matrix organization.
Person culture:
= typified by a group of individuals whose structure exist solely to service the individual members, barristers‘ chamber or kibbutz

When applicable?
Power culture:Organization depends on trust, empathy and personal conversation. Control is centralized. Since the web can break if it becomes to large, it is preferable to form other, linked organization when building for growth.
Role culture: Work of the ‚pillars‘ and their interaction is controlled by procedures for roles, communications and settlement of disputes. Coordination is effected by a narrow band of senior management, the pediment. This culture is generally inflexible and slow to change.
Task culture:Most effective where speed of reaction, integration sensitivity are more important than depth of specialization. Difficulty lie in day-to-day control producing economies of scale and achieving great depth of expertise.
Person culture:Serves individual goals, control can only achieved by mutual consent. Pure types of this organization are rare.

Hygiene (extrinsic)

Motivators (intrinsic)

Basic salary

Performance related pay

Working conditions




Administration (rules)





Nature of work