CHAPTER 6 auxiliary verbs: Often informally known as “helping verbs,” a category of words that accompany a main verb. Includes was, is, can, should, does, and did.Compositionality: The concept that there are fixed rules for combining units of language in terms of their form that result in fixed meaning relationships between the words that are joined together.Constituent: A syntactic category consisting of a word or (more often) a group of words (e.g., noun phrase, prepositional phrase) that clump together and function as a single unit within a sentence.intransitive verbs: Verbs that take a subject but no object, such as (Joe) sneezes or (Keesha) laughs.noun phrase (NP): An abstract, higher-order syntactic category that can consist of a single word or of many words, but in which the main syntactic element is a noun, pronoun, or proper name.phrase structure rules: Rules that provide a set of instructions about how individual words can be clumped into higher-order categories and how these categories are combined to create well-formed sentences.prepositional phrase (PP): A syntactic constituent, or higher-order category, that in English, consists of a preposition (e.g., in, under, before) followed by a noun phrase (NP).Semantics : The meaning of a sentence; the system of rules for interpreting the meaning of a sentence based on its structure.semantic bootstrapping hypothesis: The idea that children come equipped with innate expectations of certain grammatical categories, as well as built-in mappings between key concept types and grammatical categories.Syntax: The structure of a sentence, specifying how the words are put together. Also refers to a set of rules or constraints for how linguistic elements can be put together.telegraphic speech: Speech that preserves the correct order of words in sentences, but drops many of the small function words such as the, did, or to.transitive verbs: Verbs that take both a subject and an object, such as (Joe) kicks (the ball) or (Keesha) eats (popcorn).verb islands: Hypothetical syntactic frames that are particular to specific verbs, and that specify (1) whether that verb can combine with nouns to its left or right and/or (2) the roles that the co-occurring nouns can play in an event (for example, the do-er, the thing that is acted upon, and so on).CHAPTER 7cohort competitors: Words with overlapping onsets (e.g., candle, candy, candid, etc.).cohort model: A model of word recognition in which multiple cohort competitors become active immediately after the beginning of word is detected, and are gradually winnowed down to a single candidate as additional acoustic information is taken in.compensation for coarticulation: Phenomenon in which the perception of speech automatically adjusts to take into account the tendency for sounds to be pronounced differently in different phonetic environments; thus the same ambiguous sound may be perceived differently, depending on the adjacent sounds.excitatory connections: Connections along which activation is passed from one unit to another, so that the more active a unit becomes, the more it increases the activation of a unit it is linked to.Facilitation: Processes that make it easier for word recognition to be completed.Ganong effect: An experimental result demonstrating that the identity of a word can affect the perception of individual sounds within that word. When people hear a sound that is acoustically ambiguous between two sounds, their identification of that sound can be shifted in one direction or another depending on which of the possible sounds results in an actual word.GraphemesWritten symbols, analogous to phonemes in spoken language; individual graphemes may or may not correspond to individual phonemes (for example, two graphemes are used to represent the sound /k/ in sick).Homographs: Words that are spelled exactly the same but have separate, non-overlapping meanings (and may or may not sound the same).Homophones: Two or more words that have separate, non-overlapping meanings but sound exactly the same (even though they may be spelled differently). Inhibition: Processes that result in word recognition becoming more difficult. inhibitory connections: Connections that lower the activation of connected units, so that the more active a unit becomes, the more it suppresses the activation of a unit it is linked to. McGurk effect: An illusion in which a mismatch between auditory information and visual information pertaining to a sound’s articulation results in altered perception of that sound; for example, when people hear an audio recording of a person uttering the syllable ga while viewing a video of the speaker uttering ba, they often perceive the syllable as da. mediated semantic priming: The process by which a prime word (e.g., lion) speeds up responses to a target word (e.g., stripes) not because of a direct connection between lion and stripes, but due to an indirect connection via some other intervening word (e.g., tiger). modular mind design: View of the mind’s structure in which higher levels of processing never directly influence the lower levels; instead, the higher levels integrate information based on lower-level processes, interpret it, and pass these interpretations on to even higher levels. motor theory of speech perception: A theory that the perception of speech sounds involves accessing representations of the articulatory gestures that are required to make those speech sounds. neighborhood density effects: Experimental results demonstrating that it is more difficult and time-consuming to retrieve a word from memory if the word bears a strong phonological resemblance to many other words in the vocabulary than if resembles only a few other words. perceptual invariance: The phenomenon whereby acoustically different stimuli are perceived as examples of the same phoneme or word. phoneme restoration effect: An auditory illusion showing that when a speech sound within a word is replaced by a non-speech sound, people often report hearing both the speech and non-speech sounds. Polysemous words: Words that can convey a constellation of related, but different meanings, such as the various related meanings of paper, which can, among other meanings, refer to a specific material, or a news outlet. uniqueness point: The point at which there is enough information in the incoming speech stream to allow the hearer to differentiate a single word candidate from its cohort competitors.