Conceptual philosophy

1 .- Behavior innate and learned behaviors

Although this division should be qualified and to be more precise we have to create subgroups, we can talk, in general, inherited or innate behaviors and learned behaviors or learned.

Innate behavior patterns are engraved on the genes that each individual inherits from its parents. External stimuli only serve, at most, to trigger the behavior, which, once begun, it develops in a stereotyped way (mechanical, automatic), not be changed, because, although the external environment changes.

In contrast, learned behaviors depend more on the medium. Many of the behaviors of the higher animals are not as rigidly determined as we have called innate and are susceptible to changes according to the stimuli they receive. Any innate behavior requires a database, and learning involves more or less profound modification of these natural dispositions. Psychologists have distinguished different types of learned behaviors.

Behaviors are more effective because, Nas with less rigidity and, therefore, which are a result of increased learning capacity.

2 .- The knowledge from the point of view of psychology.

The difference between innate and learned behaviors lies precisely in the role of each of these factors: innate behavior, the genetic factor is the most important environmental stimuli and serve at most to trigger genetically programmed behavior , in contrast, learned behaviors are environmental conditions that modify the behaviors. Especially in the case of learned behaviors, information gathering is essential to the survival of the animal.

This information and get through the nervous system. The more complex the system, more and better information can be obtained. Higher animals have a highly complex nervous system.

The result of processing the information we call knowledge.

The phenomenon of knowledge is very complex. Not limited to capturing These stimuli must be processed to have meaning for the subject. Knowledge of the world begins with the pure abstraction of stimuli (sensation), which are interpreted in the brain (perception), this information is stored and becomes available for use (memory), and can also be manipulated in various ways to expand knowledge (imagination, intelligence).

3.-know vs. know

Know Learn Governed by an SN Governing a prayer Is perceptual Is conceptual Language does not presuppose Language presupposes Pets degrees Does not support degrees It is not transmissible Is transmissible Is limited by our apparatus sensorineural Can extend beyond our perception Needs no justification Need justification

4 .- Truth

a) formal truth. We say that an argument is formally true or valid when it is right from the logical point of view, that is, when follows a logically correct, regardless of the content of the proposals. So this kind of truth is also called logical truth or simply invalid. We also saw that they are only strictly correct deductive schemes.

b) material Truth: The truth material, referred to the contents or meaning of the propositions, ie the “matter” of that deal. Traditionally, philosophers have distinguished two types of material fact: the call and the call ontic truth epistemological novelty (or semantics).

b.1 .- ontic truth: We say that something is true, in ontic sense, when it’s really what it is. We must distinguish between what appears to be, pure appearance, and what really is the true self.

b.2 .- epistemological truth: The truth epistemological (or semantics) does not refer to things, but to our knowledge of things. This is the truest sense of the term. We say that an assertion (statement, proposition …) is true when what he says or agree with the facts.

c) Theories of truth

c.1 .- Truth as correspondence.: This theory sees the truth as it is commonly understood, a proposition is true if you agree or correspond with reality.

c.2 .- Truth as coherence: Faced with the difficulties of the above theory, the consistency holds that a proposition is true because it corresponds to reality, but because it is consistent (or consistent) with all other propositions considered true.

c.3 .- Truth as a positive practical action (pragmatic theory): According to this theory, a proposition is true if you have positive practical effects for those who hold it. On the positive effects should be understood that which is useful for survival and prosperity of the individual.

5 .- The epistemology or theory of knowledge.

a) The realism. : We have a natural tendency to believe that there is a world outside our minds that is, more or less as we know it: this world is made up of objects that we perceive with our senses, whose existence is independent of whether they are known and therefore there are always the same way whether or not collected, this vision is called naive realism. There are, however, another form of realism, known critic, who believes that reality exists independent of our mene, but considers it as it is captured by our senses.

b) The Platonic idealism: Against the realist position, which sees the material world is the reality is basically not material but spiritual or ideal nature. The set of all material objects PLATON call it the sensible world (the world seen), because it is perceived by the senses, and to all the ideas, intelligible world (the world understood), it can only be understood by intelligence. This is a faculty of the soul, which, as we have seen, belongs to this world intelligible. Thus, for Plato there are two realities: that of ideas is the true because it is permanent, eternal and immutable, and absolute reality, because it depends on nothing, the other, the material world is multiple and temporary, shifting and perishable, and is a relative reality, as it depends on the intelligible and is like a copy or imitation of that.

c) The skepticism. : So that was called skeptical thinkers who believed that it is impossible to ever reach absolute certainty. We must distinguish two degrees of skepticism:

1 The radical skepticism (or Pyrrhonian) states that man is unable to reach any understanding. Reach this conclusion simply by analyzing it should consist of knowledge. If knowledge is understood that a subject grasps an external object to it, this is impossible since such an object would physically penetrate the subject’s mind. Pyrrho ELISA. According to him, we can not attain knowledge of any object, since all we can grasp are the appearances of things, but not the same things, and these are displayed in a just and otherwise to others, Hence the different views. The best, said Pyrrho, is the suspension of the trial, ie no action on anything.

2 The moderate skepticism also believes that it is impossible to reach any understanding, but not because we have no capacity to know or because our claims are not true, perhaps what we believe is true, but what we lack is a definitive criterion to know when our claims are true or not.

d) Dogmatism: The position is contrary to skepticism, dogmatism. It is primarily used in religion to refer to that doctrine which is absolutely true, as revealed by God is considered. Since antiquity, was described as dogmatic person who, contrary to the skeptic, accepts uncritically that man can reach absolute truth. Therefore, is certain and infallible, without justification, many more things that can reasonably be sustained. The dogmatic person tends to be uncompromising and intolerant of opinions opposed to yours, and that, being convinced of its truth, think that the opposite must be false.

e) Empiricism: This view says that at birth our mind is completely empty, like a blank paper or a whiteboard without writing. All that, after awhile, it is ultimately sourced from the experience. There are two kinds of experiences:

1 The external experience is the feeling, and through it we know the colors, smells, etc. And finally, external objects to our minds.

2 The inner experience or reflection is the knowledge that the mind has its own operations, such as thinking, doubt, desire, joy, hatred, etc..

f) The rationalism Rationalism, however, believes that genuine knowledge must be logically necessary and universally valid, and this only happens when the reason becomes clear that something must be the way it is and can not be otherwise.

g) The Kantian apriorism: Call priori is another intermediate position between rationalism and empiricism. States that the knowing subject imposes cognitive structures of these data and adapting them to adjust their way of being. Is the position of Kant.