Concept of education

Why would we want to plan courses and lessons?

There are a number of reasons why we would want to plan our courses and lessons, including the following: 

• Thinking things through before you teach helps to reduce feelings of uncertainty or panic and inspires you instead with a sense of confidence and clarity. 

• It can inspire confidence in students who pick up a feeling of purpose, progression and coherence. 

• It helps you to understand what research you need to do. 

• Makes it easier for you to organise the time and activity flow in classes. Plans can be used in lessons to get things started, and prompt memory, and can help us to answer student questions.

• Working on planning after lessons, as well as before, ensures that the class you are teaching gets a balanced mixture of different kinds of materials, content and interaction types throughout the course. 

• Course and lesson planning help you to develop a personal style since they involve sifting through all your information, resources and beliefs, and boiling them all down to a distillation for one particular group, time and place. This distillation, together with what happens in the classroom, represents a cross-section of the present state of your art

This is one model of lesson plan proposed by Gandara-Garcia( 2007)-

Objectives of the unit
Linguistic content
Material and aids
Stages of the unit and activity proposal
– Presentation and motivation


– Final task and evaluation

1.Murado-Bouso :


We should emphasize those objectives which are related to oral comprehension and expression from a communicative perspective and following the natural order at which they naturally appear, that is, children will have to receive input for some time before they are ready to produce some output; in other words, children need to experience listening for a while before they can actually utter some words or expressions in the foreign language (this aspect is justified in Krashen’s Monitor Theory¨: 

Contents in the second language should be presented in a holistic way and should be embedded in the general contents of pre-school. These should be mainly based on oral language as children’s hearing needs to be reeducated to receive the sounds of the foreign language. 

Materials: Materials should be adapted to the specific content to be implemented. They have a direct influence in the activities and in the learning process and, thus, need to be very carefully planned. 


Teachers should employ any method that promotes listening and oral expression so that the learning process is focused on those two important skills from a communicative point of view. The Total Physical Response, Communicative Language Teaching and the Natural Approach are particularly adequate for children. 

Classroom environment

The teacher is in charge of creating a relaxed and comfortable atmosphere where students can feel free to learn through playing, participating, singing, etc. It is of vital importance to create an atmosphere that can guarantee the participation of all the students in the class (this aspect is directly related to one of the hypothesis in Krashen’s Monitor Theory 

6. Sequencing

This aspect is normally controlled by the school or by the corresponding official law; however, it is always recommendable to prepare short and daily sessions. 

7. Teacher role

The work of the foreign language teacher at this stage is a challenging one as he is in charge of all the other aspects teachers in pre-school need to guarantee (learning, socialization, nurturing, etc.) and, apart from that, he/she has to teach a second language. The teacher should work in collaboration with other teachers in the same stage, but students should identify him/her as the foreign language teacher. 

8. Activities

They should be as motivating as possible and they should enhance learning. Some of the best activities at this stage include games, role-plays, songs, rhymes, etc. 

9. Evaluation

Assessment should be global (initial, formative and summative) and it should serve as orientation for further development. We must not forget that learning a language is a continuous process and therefore the process of evaluation has to be dynamic in order to be adapted to it. 

Objectives and Learning outcomes:

Objectives are broader than learning outcomes and will state what the teacher will cover in a course. They are written in the future tense. Learning outcomes specify what the students must be able to do. They are written in the future tense 

They should be achievable and assessible and use language that learners (and other teachers) can easily understand



Pupils remain fully engaged


Pupils make progress in the lesson


Pupils understand what work is expected of them


Learning outcomes:

The teacher’s purpose or aim using the activity i.E. What he or she wants to achieve through the activity. The children’s purpose in carrying out the activity.

Material and resources: (Input)

The material that children will work on, eg text, oral instructions etc.

Procedures :

What children actually do with the iput, eg they read it or talk about it, etc.

Output/Outcome :

What the children will produce as a result of the activity, eg a story book, an answer to a problem, a picture, etc. 

Teacher roles :

The roles that the teacher will need to perform which are suggested by the activity eg Communicative games, using groups, will require the teacher to set up the task and then step back and monitor it. 

Linguistic and pragmatic components of the foreign language: English 

Theory construction is of vital importance in the field of scientific research in general and in the field of SLA in particular both from the linguistic and pragmatic point of view. 

In this section, we are going to deal with some of the most important theories of Second Language Acquisition grouped in three different categories: 

NATIVIST: they propose a relationship between innate meachanims and knowledge

ENVIOMENTALIST: they claim that knowledge is bases on experience

INTERACTIONIST: there is a relationship or interaction among innate abilities, learned abilities and enviromental factors

3.1. Nativist theories of SLA

According to Clavel-Arroitia (2012: 62), “[n]ativist theories are the ones that attempt to explain the process of language acquisition by claiming that we are born with an innate device that predisposes us to learn languages in a natural way”. Among the most important nativist theories, we find Chomsky’s Universal Grammar (UG) and Krashen’s Monitor Theory (MT). 

3.1.1. Chomsky’s Universal Grammar (UG)

Chomsky and his collaborators working within what has been called the Chomskyan framework state that humans are genetically supplied with a language-specific endowment, which they call not sufficient to guarantee language acquisition. They believe that input is deficient since it encloses characteristics of oral language (like false starts, hesitations, ungrammaticality, etc.)

Universal Grammar .
This concept is offers an explanation for the fact that input data alone is Furthermore, according to them, it lacks overt negative evidence , that is, information from the speaker that the hearer can use in order to know what is correct and what is not. We can claim that the main role of the UG is to offer the hearer the adequate linguistic principles in order for him/her to deal with the rules of language. They state that this way we can overcome the We can claim that UG is a universal notion and it applies to any language in the world. Nevertheless, most of the times these general principles need to be adapted and they will vary according to specific languages: these are what they call parameters which are more restricted and local. Problem of the poverty of the stimulus , which means that it is hard to explain our ability to create an infinite number of utterances that we have never heard before if we take into consideration the relative insufficiency of the input we receive. 

They make a distinction between:

Core gramar:

it is base don principles and parameters (once the correct setting have been triggered by input.


Peripheral gramar:

linguistic knowiedge ( it has to be learned by experience) 

We could say that one of the main advantages of this theory is that it has motivated a huge amount of SLA research. This was particularly important since it appeared at a moment in which this was necessary as SLA was a relatively new field. 

The shortcomings, on the other hand, are several:

Ø The claim that language learning is complete by age five (as they believe) is questionable because some complex syntactical structures are acquired after that age. 

Ø The assumption that all syntactic structures are innately acquired is also questionable as there is evidence that some of them need to be learned. 

Ø The fact that the input learners receive is degenerate has been criticised; more particularly the claim that since it lacks negative evidence it prevents learning. It has been proved that language learning can take place naturally just through exposure to input by elaborating hypotheses that will be later confirmed or disconfirmed in the light of positive evidence. 

1.Krashen ś Theories of SLA

Stephen Krashen’s Monitor Theory is one of the most significant theories of SLA

In its development from 1978 to 1985, the original ten hypotheses were reduced to five major claims: 

La teoría del monitor de Setephen krashen es una de las teorías más significativas del SLA. En su desarrollo desde 1978 hasta 1985, las diez hipótesis originales se redujeron a cinco afirmaciones principales: 

Mis cinco hipótesis de adquisición de un segundo idioma: 

-Adquisición-Aprendizaje – Monitor
-Orden natural

-Filtro efectivo

The Acquisition-learning Hypothesis. (

La hipótesis de adquisición-aprendizaje.) 

It claims that there are two separate but complementary systems that rule language learning:


The Acquisition-learning Hypothesis

It claims that there are two separate but complementary systems that rule language learning: 


 as I our mother tongue it is a natural porcess in which the lerarner is not awer of the fact that he/she is learning 


it operates i n a concious way and it normally relates to instructional settings. 

2.The Natural Order Hypothesis. :

It states that there is a fixed order in which the rules of the second language are learned and this order does not normally coincide with the way these rules are presented in teaching syllabuses. 

3.The Monitor Hypothesis . This hypothesis summarises the relationship between the acquired and the learned system:


It allows students to initiate the utterances: 


It is used for planning, editing and correcting 

4.The Input Hypothesis. ( La hipótesis de entrada)

One of the main tenets of the MT is that the input received by students is vital for their learning of the language since sometimes it is the only linguistic source they receive. Nonetheless, we need to highlight that, according to Krashen, not any kind of inputwill result in meaningful learning; he states that only “comprehensible inpuẗ”, that is, the type of input that can be understood by students, will be of benefit for them. “Comprehensible input” should, he says, be just a little beyond the students’ current level; if it is too hard for them to understand, it will not result in genuine learning or acquisition 

5.The Affective Filter hypothesis embodies

Krashen’s view that a number of ‘affective variables’ play a facilitative, but non- causal, role in second language acquisition. These variables include: motivation, self-confidence, anxiety and personality traits. Krashen claims that learners with high motivation, self-confidence, a good self-image, a low level of anxiety and extroversion are better equipped for success in second language acquisition. Low motivation, low self-esteem, anxiety, introversion and inhibition can raise the affective filter and form a ‘mental block’ that prevents comprehensible input from being used for acquisition. In other words, when the filter is ‘up’ it impedes language acquisition. On the other hand, positive affect is necessary, but not sufficient on its own, for acquisition to take place. 

Schumann’s Pidginization Hypothesis and Acculturation Model 

Schumann’s Model (1975, 1978) was part of a wider study (the Harvard Project, Cazden, Cancino, Rosansky and Schumann, 1975). He observed the natural acquisition of Alberto, a 33-year-old worker from Costa Rica who lived in Cambridge, Massachusetts, for ten months. Alberto was the least successful of the six learners in the original study. 

Schumann attempted to find out the reasons for Alberto’s problems and he discarded intelligence or cognitive ability and age. He then proposed the notions of social and psychological distance from speakers of the target language (as the subject lived in a chiefly Portuguese area) as the cause of his limitations when learning the SL.

Schumann describes social distance as a group phenomenon consisting of eight factors:

1.Social dominance

2. Integration pattern




6. Cultural congruence


8.Intended lenght of residence

Psychological distance, on the other hand, is a concept that operates at the individual level and it consists of four affective factors: 

1.Language shock, culture shock,motivation, ego permeability

According to him, the processes underlying both pidginization and the first stages of naturalistic SLA are not only equivalent, but universal. He claims that both of them include development in a SL of the necessary means to obtain one of the basic functions of language: the communicative function. 

He claims that early SLA and pidgins share a series of linguistic characteristics because both are ruled by the same underlying simplification processes. What he proposes is that these same simplification processes are present in both of these phenomena and that the degree to which this reduction will spread will be dependent on the social and psychological distance between the learner and the speakers of the target language. 

Schumann dinstinguishes two types of aculutartion:

Type one: members are socially an dpsicology integrated in the target lenguage group.

Type two: members are socially an dpsicology integrated in the target lenguage group and the are welling to beacome like the L2 spekers and adopt their lifestyle and values

Interactionist theories

These theories are more powerful than the two other types of theories as they consider both innate and environmental factors in second language learning and development. The concept of greater power which is part of these theories has explanatory value although it means that a higher number of variables has to be accounted for when handling the data, which is problematic. 

Studies show that negative transfer occurs on fewer occasions than other types of errors (Cenoz 2001, Bouvy 2000 

Cognates-Negative Transfer

Cognates are words from two languages that are the same or similar. 

As English borrows many words from Latin there are many Spanish-English


Songs and Learning English

About the affective filter weak, Saricoban and Metin (2000) have found that songs can develop the four skills of reading, writing, speaking and listening. Eken (1996) points out eight reasons for the use of songs in a Primary language classroom: 

Reasons for teaching songs in early years

Affective/ Linguistic /Cognitive 

Teaching Songs and the Affective Filter Hypothesis

Krashen, in his Natural Approach methodology, developed five hypotheses; one of these is The Affective Filter Hypothesis. 

This is a justification of how the affective factors relate to language learning. It is mainly attractive to teachers as it answers why some learners learn and others do not. 

It is necessary for students to have a positive attitude in regard to learning. Teachers are responsible for finding this positive attitude. 

Krashen (1982) explains that for optimal learning to occur the affective filter must be weak. A weak affective filter means a positive attitude towards learning. 

If the affective filter is strong the learner will not search for language input, and consecutively will not be open for language acquisition. Teachers have to provide a positive atmosphere conducive to language learning. And songs are one method for achieving this weak affective filter that teachers need to promote language learning. Using rhythm, chanting and songs. 

Affective Factors

Singing can build students’ confidence by allowing them to enjoy a degree of fluency in English before they have achieved it in speaking. The enjoyment aspect of learning a language through song is directly associated to affective factors. 

Music has always been a way for children to remember stories and learn about the world around them. Using music as a stimulus can influence one’s emotions and make information easier to remember. 

Songs can create an emotional climate within the classroom to establish students’ confidence in their abilities. Songs can make English lessons nice and funny for the students. 

In general, the use of music in the language classroom encourages students to be quiet because it avoids auditory distractions. Therefore, it is mainly helpful to create the relaxing classroom atmosphere needed to develop written composition activities. Songs have the capacity to change the hearer’s mood because it stimulates our imagination. 

Lingusitic Reasons for using songs

In addition of cognitive reasons, there are also linguistic reasons for using songs in Primary classrooms. Some songs are excellent examples to work with colloquial English, that is, the language of informal conversation. It is obvious that the majority of language most ESL learners will find is in fact formal. Using songs can prepare students for the actual language they will be faced with in real life. 

Two studies, Domoney and Harris (1993) and Little (1983) investigated the prevalence of pop music in the lives of EFL students. Both studies found that music is often the major source of English outside of the classroom. The exposure to authentic English is an important factor in promoting language learning. It relates directly to both the affective filter and automaticity. If students are exposed to songs which they enjoy, more learning is likely to occur since they may seek out the music outside of the classroom. The repetitive style of the songs then helps to promote automatization of colloquial language. 

In fact, songs are mainly good at introducing vocabulary because songs provide a significant context for the vocabulary. In this context, words could be understood better and other related words could be completed by visual images or some other methods.

Furthermore, using English songs in teaching English grammar might be an instructive approach. It is recommended that English teachers make the most of English songs

Oral comprehension and production 

In the context of oral comprehension and production, several skills are included; we can talk about pronunciation, listening comprehension and speaking ability. Pronunciation is normally considered a complex area of language teaching and it is always difficult to find the right balance between correct pronunciation and comprehensible pronunciation. My view is that as long as our students are understood, we should not strive for perfection. There are several areas of pronunciation we should aim at improving: 

1.Segmental features: Individual sounds or phonemes

2.Connected speech: assimilation, liaison, elision

3.Prosodic features: the suprasegmental domain, that is, stress, rhythm and intonation

With regard to listening comprehension and from a general point of view Bowen and Marks (1994: 135-137) offer a series of recommendations: 

1.Don’t spend too much time on listening at the expense of teaching new language and giving practice in speaking

2.When you do listening activities, teach don’t test

3.Encourage learners to listen to each other rather than just to the teacher and to the tape/CD

4.Use CDs and digital media as much as possible for classroom listening work and most of it should be authentic listening material. 

5.Use video as much as possible for classroom listening work

6.Use material that will appeal to the learner’s interests and needs

7.Set tasks or questions before the learners listen, not after

In the case of those schools where English is taught in a bilingual or multilingual context, we can follow the example of pre-school education in countries where English is the L1. Some of the objectives that we can implement in our classes are the ones proposed in the guide for pre- school teachers Getting Children Ready for Kindergarten by the Arkansas Department of Human Services4 for expressiveness and language comprehension: A successful student: 

ØUses effective oral communication skills and speaks in complete sentences. 

ØUnderstands and follows directions with at least two steps. 

ØUnderstands vocabulary related to position, direction, size and comparison: like/different, top/bottom, first/last, big/little, up/down, etc. 

ØMakes simple predictions and comments about a story being read. 

ØRecognizes, replicates or repeats a visual or auditory patterning sequence. 

ØRecites/participates/joins in repeating a familiar song/poem/finger play/nursery rhyme. 

Written comprehension and production 

In EFL¨teaching in general, writing can be considered the “forgotten skill” (Bowen and Marks, 1994: 143) since in most cases, it receives the least attention. Many teachers may not view time spent writing in class as particularly productive when there are other types of activities, such as speaking, listening or learning vocabulary, that seem to them to be more active aspects of language learning. 

In the particular case of pre-school education, the task may seem an even greater waste of time becomes since learners are still learning to write in their mother tongue. Therefore, we should focus our teaching on oral aspects of language learning and let writing emerge later on when the students are ready. That does not mean that writing should be completely neglected: there are many activities children can do such as matching names and pictures, writing words, recognizing names of objects, etc. We should be able to increase the level of difficulty in writing as our students’ command of the foreign language advances. This is directly related to the term comprehensible input , coined by Krashen and explained in section 3. 

The type of objectives we can try to achieve here can also be found in the guide mentioned above, as for instance: 

·ØRecognizes names in print when shown in flashcards. 

·ØPoints to and/or recognizes letters in names. 

·ØAttempts to write letters in own name. 

·ØRecognizes 10 alphabet letter names which may include those in the pupil’s own name, by pointing to requested letter. 

·ØUses symbols or drawings to express ideas.
Again, in the guide we can find numerous examples of activities to assess those objectives. 

It is important to take into account the different aspects that children acquire in the several areas included in written comprehension and production (Murado-Bouso, 2010: 17-18): 



The order of acquisition shows that students learn the –ing form in the first place and then –s plural form and the genitive ‘s. The irregular past verbal forms are acquired before the regular ones. And finally, the third person singular –s is late acquired (see video on Krashen). 



Children tend to overgeneralize and make use of superordinate terms. Their lexicon is reduced in number and it normally includes concrete nouns (related to their nearest environment), action verbs and adjectives related with colour and size. 



Children start using the present tense and the use of the past tense emerges after a time. They learn from a communicative perspective and not from a grammatical point of view hence this order. They go through the process of constructing negative and interrogative sentences making mistakes when ordering the different elements until they finally acquire the correct grammatical form.

Strategies, tools and motivation for the learning of English 

It is important at this point to take into consideration a series of psychological or affective factors that have a very important role in the process of teaching/learning a foreign language, particularly in the case of very young learners. 

The study of SLA must inevitably take into account learner variables. The most important of these are exemplified in the following figure: 



Personality factors are, according to Saville-Troike (2006: 89-90), together with cognitive style, what characterise learning styles. In the following table, she offers the different characteristics as endpoints of continua, that is most learners would be situated somewhere between both extremes. The traits in bold indicate positive correlation with language learning: 


Larsen-Freeman and Long, define self-esteem as the feeling of self-worth that an individual possesses. Shavelson et al. (1976) proposed a hierarchy to account for self- esteem which would include: 

-Global self-stem:the individua’s overall self assesment, at the highlest level

-Specific self -stem: how individuals perceive themselves in varius life context and according to varius charecteristc

-Third level: the evaluation one gives oneself on especific task


Motivation is one of the most important factors in second language acquisition. Richards (1985, p. 185) believes motivation as a factor that determines a person’s desire to do something. It is obvious that learners who want to learn are likely to achieve more than those who do not. 

The role of attitudes and motivation in SLA has been investigated by Gardner and Lambert (1972), who define motivation in terms of ‘ the learner’s overall goal or orientation’, and attitude as ‘the persistence shown by the learner in striving for a goal’ (Ellis 1985, p. 117; Patsy Lightbown at.Al, 2000, p. 56). 

They distinguish two types of motivation:

A) Integrative motivation:

a learner studies a language because he is interested in the people and culture of the target language or in order to communicate with people of another culture who speak it. 

B) Instrumental motivation:

a learner’s goals for learning the second language are functional and useful, for example they need the language to get a better job, to pass tests, to enable him to read foreign news paper, etc. 

It has been stated that learners can be influenced by both types of motivation. However, there are situations when one can be more effective than the other. Integrative motivation plays a major role where L2 is learned as a ‘foreign language’, while an instrumental motivation is more important where L2 functions as a ‘second language’. Gardner (1979) links an integrative motivation to ‘additive bilingualism’ which means that learners add a second language to their skills with no harm to their mother tongue. Instrumental motivation is more likely to be linked to ‘subtractive bilingualism’, where the learners tend to replace the mother tongue by the target language (Ellis, 1985). Motivation

Motivation can be also distinguished into intrinsic and extrinsic.

“Intrinsically motivated activities are ones for which there is no apparent reward except the activity itself. Intrinsically motivated behaviors are aimed at bringing about certain internally rewarding consequences, namely, feelings of competence and self- determination). 

Extrinsically motivated behaviors expect a reward, for example money, a praise or positive feedback. Maslow (1970) and other researchers claim that intrinsic motivation leads to greater success in learning a foreign language, especially in a long run (Brown 1994). 


Language aptitude is a factor that, despite extensive research, has not been really understood yet (Clavel-Arroitia, 2012:46). The main objective has been trying to devise tests of students’ learning potential before they begin a course. 

Following Littlewood (1984), it can be claimed that intelligence and language aptitude have been found to correlate best with the more academic language skills which are often emphasised at school, whereas attitudes and motivation, seem to be mostly related with the ability to use language for interpersonal communication. 

2.Describe different learning styles you can find in an early year’s classroom

•Visual: Students with a visual style of learning will remember information best when presented with pictures or graphics. 

•Auditory: Auditory learners are best able to understand when they hear information. In early education, auditory learners are more likely to prefer listening to stories or telling stories as a way to understand information.

•Kinesthetic: Students with a kinesthetic learning style learn best by manipulating objects and engaging in physical activities to learn the material.

•Verbal:In early childhood education, verbal learners and auditory learner have similarities because they learn best from stories. 

•Logical or mathematical:These students understand math and science better than other students, and focus on finding a pattern. 

•Social: Interaction with classmates is also a contributing factor in learning.


What is story telling ?

Storytelling is the narration and performance of a tale or story by the teacher. The story must be easy, interesting to perform for our children (we need to grab their attention with the first line). 

Why do we use stories in early years ?

Encouraging young children to listen to stories should help them to learn a second language in a way that is not only fun, but memorable. 

It can enrich children’s language environment, extend play based learning, and better prepare them for the transition to school. 

The story or tale must be interesting and the first line must grab their attention. Once upon a time……. 

To read a story or to tell a story

Reading a story

Reading the book and the authors words. 

Telling a story

Introducing expressions and data of your own, using gestures and sounds, repeating things and interpretating. It ́s a bit like performing or interpreting. 


Take into account

If we want our learners to believe in us when we read or tell our story then; 

·We must always look at them in the eye, 

·We can dress up or disguise ourselves to make the story more appealing and comprehensible. 

·We can modify and adapt the sentences. 

·intonation will make the children more attentive 

·Perform the story according to the different characters. 

Tales or Stories must have;

1. An introduction: where the characters are presented.
2. Central part:where the action happens and a solution to the to situation is given.
3. End part :usually with a happy ending
4. They could also contain expressions like once upon a time…. Or ….They lived happily ever after, which we should try and repeat

-Use gesture, intonation, facial expressions 

-Vary volumen pitch and tempo
-Use distincs carácter voices
-Follow yout words with adictions

Advantages of storytelling

Social, mental, educational


Storytelling is not only the momento when we tell the story, it also means preparing some activities around the story in order to work on the things we want to teach through that story. They could be oral or listening activities. 

·Before you tell 

·While you tell 

·• After you tell 

What are the benefits storytelling?

·It increases imagination 

·It encourages cooperation 

·It can make children concéntrate, but also relax 

·Teaches children values such as respect (keeping silence when the story is being told) 

·It shows children different aspects of life 

·It stimulates their feelings 

·It emulates the natural way of learning a language. 

·They develop listening and communication skills, improve concentration and memory, bring experiences 

·Storytelling and intercultural understanding allow children to explore their own cultural roots allow children to experience diverse cultures 

How to select the ideal story?

·Don ́t choose boring or difficult stories

·If you don ́t like the story, don ́t tell it-children might notice 

·Choose stories that may have some relevance in children ́s lives 

Creation of materials for the teaching of English in pre-school

Fortunately, the English classroom is a perfect environment for teachers to make interesting lessons: there are innumerable possibilities. If we know how to take advantage of the many resources and materials available for us, we will be able to achieve a very important goal: our students will learn while not being aware of it acquiring̈: see Krashen’s MT in section 2) language at the same time as they are having fun. 

According to Pérez-Pérez (2009: 2), it is not easy to maintain the students’ attention and she offers several strategies to do so: 

1.Keep visual contact at all times

2.Be up to all the different levels we might have in our class so that slower

students do not get lost and better student do not get bored. 

3.Check for comprehension all the time

4.Offer them fun activities that might attract their attention (games, songs,

projects, etc.). 

5.Use visual aids (flashcards, posters, drawings) to illustrate the activities you


Here we give some examples of the types of activities we can introduce in class and the appropriateness and usefulness of each one of them: 

give them to guarantee comprehension: this facilitates visual learning .
6. Implement a varied methodology that combines traditional teaching with the use of new technologies. ICTs are highly motivational for students. 

The use of drama

Drama techniques facilitate oral expression and communication as they promote the use of words but also the use of gestures. At this stage, learners are very receptive to any type of dramatization and will absorb the content that is implied in the particular drama activity we are implementing. The use of puppets is particularly interesting because children like them a lot and they will be picking up language as they are enjoying the performance. Most of the textbooks nowadays have particular characters who are the protagonist of the different stories and they normally have these puppets included in the supplementary materials. Apart from this, these types of activities promote creativity, group work, co-operation and they are interesting and attractive for students. 

Comic strips and stories

These are a very powerful teaching tool (Pérez-Pérez, 2009: 4) and they can help us to: 

Ø Tell a story through the use of images. Ø Include some words/sentences that can help promote comprehension. 

Ø Introduce
Ø Introduce
Ø Transmit
Ø Deal with a variety of topics vocabulary. Characters. Values. 

Normally students enjoy these types of stories which can include famous characters that they know because they’ve seen them in television series or cartoon programmes. We can take advantage of these positive factors and the motivational nature of these tasks to practice very simple structures and introduce new vocabulary. 


Games can offer our students a meaningful communicative context for them to put into practice what they are learning in the classroom. Playing is in the nature of children and, while they are practicing such a habitual activity, they will be learning without realizing they are doing so. There are lots of different games available for children; we can use the ones in the book, use our imagination or search the net to look for the most appropriate ones for our students. 


Entertaining and motivating, songs are a very useful tool to practice language learning in the classroom. They are fun for students, they facilitate learning and they promote oral language (both from the point of view of listening comprehension and oral production). As they normally rhyme and because they are easily remembered, children will acquire the structures and vocabulary included in each one of them. They are exposed to authentic language and to the sound of native speakers which can promote authentic learning. Songs are also useful to create a relaxing and motivating atmosphere where students will feel invited to participate and learn. Using popular songs, we can make students be exposed to the culture of the foreign country. This is a very relevant aspect since the teaching of the English language implies the teaching of the culture of those countries where that language is spoken. 

The use of internet

The incorporation of new technologies in schools and classrooms has brought about a revolutionary change in teaching. More and more classrooms now have the necessary facilities to be able to implement ICTs in their methodology and these have proven to be really helpful in students’ acquisition of language (for more information on this see section 8). The use of internet in the classroom can multiply the number of possibilities we have when teaching English and provide us with limitless activities, resources, videos, songs, blogs, posters, etc. 

Apart from ready-made activities, teachers can create their own materials. That way, they will be creating specific materials to meet the particular needs of their students. Using these tailor-made tasks, we will be able to satisfy all of the learning styles and reach all the levels found in our classes. Here we offer a list of resources teachers can use for different aspects and skills in the English classroom (adapted from Carretero- Ramos, 2005): 

Ø Listening: 

  • Interactive CD-ROMs. 
  • Videos/DVDs. 
  • Sites where you can find songs and their lyrics 
  • Supplementary materials of textbooks (CDs, videos, etc.). 

Ø Speaking: 

  • Recording devices, video conferences, etc. 
  • Powerpoint presentations. 

Ø Reading: 

  • • Sites where you can find different reading materials 
  • On-line magazines 
  • On-line books and stories 

Ø Writing: 

  • Supplementary materials offered by publishing houses. 
  • Sites where you can find different activities for the practice of grammar and vocabulary On-line dictionaries: 
  • On-line grammars: (for teachers_) 

  • Programmes to create on-line materials:


A variety of active play toys like bean bags for tossing, parachutes for lifting, mats for tumbling and soft foam balls for passing games.(number mats, safety trampoline bike pan, learn to craw tunnel folding bike. 

Arts and Crafts

These activities allow young children to develop creative expression, practice fine motor skills, experiment with shapes, line and colours. 

-coloured pencils, scissors etc. 

– Colour washable Tempera Paint 

– Creative design brushes 

– Chubby Brushes 

– Paint and clay texture kit 

– Colour Diffusing Paper 

– Crayon 

Carpets and rugs

Children need softness in their physical surrounding to relax and feel comfortable. Carpets and rugs in bright 

colours create cozy classroom areas. 

Children’s Books

Help children develop a close and enjoyable relationship with books: factual book, fantasy, books about people of different races, cultures ages and abilities. Build a classroom library. 

Play Ground

Wilkins (2002) identifies play ground, games and toys and other instructional materials as essential for successfully handling of children. Outdoor play maintains health and fitness and enhances learning and creativity. Children have an opportunity to play outside every day. Outdoor play is never sacrificed for more instructional time. 

Puzzles and Games

Encourage critical thinking, problem solving foster language development and refine the basis for learning activities. 

Children work on projects and have long periods of time (at least one hour) to play and explore.

What is Jolly Phonics?

Jolly Phonics is a fun and child centred approach to teaching literacy through synthetic phonics. With actions for each of the 42 letter sounds, the multi-sensory method is very motivating for children and teachers, who can see their students achieve. The letter sounds are split into seven groups. 

Letter Sound Order

How does Jolly Phonics work?

Using a synthetic phonics approach, Jolly Phonics teaches children the five key skills for reading and writing. Complemented by Jolly Readers and Jolly Grammar, it provides a thorough foundation for teaching literacy over three years in school. 

Organize a Collaborative Digital Story. Tools for creating a story

  • Voicethread – Create a collaborative story by uploading images, documents, and videosthat are turned into a multimedia slideshow where learners and others can navigate slides and comment in various ways. 
  • Voxopop – Create collaborative audio stories or have discussions. Listen to this example chain story by Nik Peachey to give you ideas. 
  • Google Presentations – Have each person contribute a slide and include images, colored fonts, and more. Here is a template you could use. 
  • Book Creator Lite for iPhone, iPad- Each student contributes a page to the story. Make sure you include their voices or drawings so that we know your students contributed to the story. 
  • Padlet- Tell a story with sticky notes. Add video, images, and text. Choose the stream layout for your chain story. Each person will see the previous post and will be able to contribute. Students or your peers DO NOT need to create an account. However, they should include a name even if it is an alias. This app is free and available on the web or through any mobile device with Internet access. Here is a good tutorial on how to set-up a free account and begin the story. 
  • Storyboard 

Preparing a Didactic unit

A didactic unit is a kind of lesson plan. Teacher details and describes each lesson of the course. In order to guide class instructions, the teacher will develop a didactic unit, regarding skills, competences, time managing (time devoted to do each activity) and the explanations given to the students. Writing it, the teacher has to take into account what students have to learn during the course, how classes will be planned, the different needs that students can present (lack of concentration, difficulties to learn, capacity to learn easily… Etc). 

The usual structure of a didactic unit is the following:

Contextualization: Kind of school, student ́s background, teachers, number of students level of difficulty 

1.You have to justify your didactic unit and explain why you have chosen the theme/topic who is addressed (early years, primary, secondary education, bachiller, etc 

2.The general objectives of the didactic unit. What the teacher wants to get from the students at the end

3.Table of contents (according to the educational system): grammar, vocabulary, phonology, speaking, writing, listening, reading, socio-cultural knowledge… 

4.Methodology and methodological objectives

5.Resources and materials that will be used in class

6.Assumed knowledge of students. What the teacher thinks that the students know taking into account what they have learnt from previous years. 

7.Anticipated problems: what kind of problems can present the didactic unit and possible solutions

8.Planning lesson, developing the type of activities the purpose of it, in what is based on, time managing and the interaction (teacher and students, work group, etc) 

9.Evaluation criteria. What will be evaluated and how?

10.Attention to students with specific educational needs: in this section, the teacher will have to take into account the extra material that students may need, maybe because they need a reinforcement or maybe because their level is upper than the rest of the classmates. 

Top 10 Signs of a Good Kindergarten Classroom5

1.Children are playing and working with materials or other children. They are not

aimlessly wandering or forced to sit quietly for long periods of time. 

2.Children have access to various activities throughout the day, such as block building, pretend play, picture books, paints and other art materials, and table toys such as legos, pegboards, and puzzles. Children are not all doing the same things at the same time. 

3.Teachers work with individual children, small groups, and the whole group at different times during the day. They do not spend time only with the entire group. 

4.The classroom is decorated with children’s original artwork, their own writing with invented spelling, and dictated stories. 

5.Children learn numbers and the alphabet in the context of their everyday experiences. Exploring the natural world of plants and animals, cooking, taking attendance, and serving snack are all meaningful activities to children. 

6.Children work on projects and have long periods of time (at least one hour) to play and explore. Filling out worksheets should not be their primary activity.

7.Children have an opportunity to play outside every day that weather permits. This play is never sacrificed for more instructional time. 

8.Teachers read books to children throughout the day, not just at group story time. Curriculum is adapted for those who are ahead as well as those who need additional help. 

9.Because children differ in experiences and background, they do not learn the same things at the same time in the same way.

10.Children and their parents look forward to school. Parents feel safe sending their child to kindergarten. Children are happy; they are not crying or regularly sick. 

3.What is ICT?

The ITC can be defined as “anything that allows us to obtain information, communicate with others, have an effect on the environment using electrical or digital equipment” in early childhood education (ECE).

4.Why is ICT important in the early years classroom?

The ITC has an effect on the people and the environment surrounding the learning of Young children. These technologies offer new opportunities in many aspects of early childhood education practice. There is interest in the entire educational sector for the development and integration of ” Itc ” in the policy, curriculum and practice of education. ICTs help in collaboration, cooperation and positive results.

5.What are the advantages and disadvantages of very young children using ICT

According to some authors?

Stephen & Plowman 2003 Desventajas: harmful physical effects of children’s prolonged

computer use negative impacts on childrens social development. Educational concerns that computer use can interfere vith aspects of children’s cognitive development, concerns about children s exposure to unsuitable content or containing inappropriate gender cultural or social


1.How should we use ICT according to Pennock-Speck?

The first is the ‘condition of innovation’ (CInnov): it states that we should only use ICT

when they bring something new or innovative to our teaching practice.

Second The second is the “economic condition” (CEcon): we must avoid expensive use.

Recommend the use of free and low-cost tools and materials.

Third The third is ‘condition of effort’ (CEffort): we should not get involved in ICT activities when It could result in excessive work for students.