Cognitive Development: Is the construction of the thought process, including remembering, problem solving, and decision-making, from childhood through adolescence to adulthood. (Piaget believes that cognitive development is universal, meaning that everyone matured in the same way, no matter what.– children all around the world, regardless of the culture they are in, or the way that their parents teach, the child will always say their first words around one year ALL AROUND THE WORLD) 
**Piaget also believed that intelligence was not a fixed trait, and regarded cognitive development as a process which occur due to biological maturation and interactions with the environment. He broke cognitive development down into 4 stages– The sensorimotor which lasts from ages 0-2, The preoperational lasts from ages 3-5, The concrete operations lasts from the ages 6-11, and the Formal operations that lasts from ages 12 to adulthood. 
Sensorimotor: at birth the infant has no concept of self, they do not understand that they are separate from others. They have no concepts of others or objects (when something/someone leaves, to the infant they no longer exist.) They also have no concept of time– no concept of what 24-hrs is or even an hour. Something that helps develop a sense of time, is to set a routine. (How do you know when your infant is becoming self aware? When they begin to understand language, and start saying “no”. We can also see that they have a concept of self whenever they form an attachment to another human being (around 6-8 months). When they know that you exist even when you are out of sight. ABILITIES: to think about what stimulus is coming through their sensory. They acquire motor skills. LIMITATIONS: They don’t have object or person permanence in the beginning but will acquire  it later. 
Preoperational: Have a good concept of self– they have a concept of object/person permanence, they can talk/communicate their feelings/opinions. They can walk, they have a concept of time. Children in this time of life are stuck in the consciousness of a preschooler.  They are MAGICAL THINKERS: they will be swept away by a magician, they will just explain a magic show as quite literally as MAGIC. We as adults will try to figure out what the scientific explanation is. these kids just indulge in the magic. ANIMALISM: a 3-5 yr old has special stuffed animal that in their minds are very alive and is someone they communicate with. LIMITED TO HOW THINGS APPEAR: if the child is presented with equal volumes of lemonade but in different cups, one short and one tall cup with equivalent amounts of liquid in them.. the child will say that the tall cup has the most. THEY HAVE A HARD TIME FOCUSING ON MORE THAN ONE DIMENSION TO A PROBLEM (cannot put themselves in another person place. THEY ARE EGOCENTRIC(ex. is when the kid is looking at the mountain): b/c they have no other choice. there needs to be a level of education for them to understand that there are other thought in others minds. THEY HAVE LIMITED MORAL REASONING: again they need to be able to get into another mind. They are unable to differentiate between intention and action. DIFFICULTY REVERSING IN OPERATION. 
Conservation of volume, mass, and number experiments:  
volume: The two cups w/juice. Mass: the two balls of clay are equal in mass. Piaget rolls out one of the balls of clay infront of her. she will still say that the ball has more clay then the rolled out. Number: When they layed out two rows of 25c w/ the same amount of coins in each row. 
Vygotsky: believed that the child is a social being an cognative development is led by social interactions. Piaget believed that children will only learn when they are ready, whereas vygotsky believed that development could be accelerated to an extent, with the correct scaffolding and within the ZPD. ZPD: there is a zone of proximal development, and there is a range of optimal concepts that a child is ready to learn. When you teach your child above or below their learning level you will lose them. Real knowledge and learning comes into play whenever the teacher is teaching at a level that is close to their limits. Scaffolding: Absolute minimal support necessary to learn on their own– learning is a social event. 
Gender Identity: lives in the brain, it is the gender you assign yourself. (Can correlate with the assigned sex at birth or can differ)Gender stereotype: are fixed idea about Men’s and womens traits and capabilities and how people should behave based on their genders. Biological Sex: if you are XX or XY Assigned Gender: the gender we were assigned at birth. Based on physical attributes. Gender Expression: Typically reflects a persons gender identity (which is their internal sense of theirown gender) HOW WE DISPLAY OUR GENDER. Gender non-conforming: the degree to which an indiv. appearance, behaviors, interests and self concept deviates from the conventional norms of Mascul./feminini.. Gender Queer; is commonly known  as a person who feels that his/her gender identity does not fit into the socially acceptable constructed ”norms” associated with his/her biological sex. this identity falls somewhere inbetween male and female on the spectrum of gender identity.