Cold War and Decolonization: Causes, Consequences, and Definitions

1. Why did the Americans think the Kremlin chose Berlin as the focal point?

Berlin was a symbol of Germans

2. What do you think the Ho Chi Minh trail was?

The load that used North Vietnamese to introduce weapons in South Vietnam

3. What were the ideological differences between the United States and the USSR?

Communism and capitalism

4. Complete with words: Fidel Castro, economic, Soviet Union, missiles, blockade, Khrushchev, Kennedy

5. On which continents were the Warsaw Pact countries located?

Europe and Asia

6. What was the Marshall Plan?

American economic assistance to European countries.

7. Which two superpowers emerged after the Second World War?

USA and the USSR

8. Which countries became independent between 1945 and 1949? Which new state was created during that time?

Lebanon, Asian countries, Jordan, Judia, and Indonesia, Israel

9. What were the causes of the formation of antagonistic blocs? Which blocs were created? What differences and interests separated them?

The rivalry between the two superpowers and their opposing economic and political systems. The USA and countries of the NATO, which had a capitalist market economy and a democratic liberal system. The USSR had a state-run economy (communist system) and a single-party system

10. Define

a) Marshall Plan: Four-year program organized by the US government which gave economic assistance to countries in Europe for post-war reconstruction

b) Arms race: Manufacturing of new weapons, nuclear weapons, etc., to prepare for war and have the same or more arms than the other countries

c) Non-alignment: Neutral position of the new countries to not be involved in bloc politics

d) Iron Curtain: Division of Europe and the whole world due to the blocs. Between the blocs, there wasn’t any communication (you didn’t know what happened on the other side)

e) Decolonization: Independence movements which created new countries independent of the metropole (end of colonialism)

f) Superpower: Victorious power of the Second World War who led the policy and the economy

11. Define figures

a) John F. Kennedy: Democratic President of the USA who started the peaceful coexistence (1960-1965)

b) Nikita Khrushchev: First Secretary of the USSR after the death of Stalin who initiated a process of de-Stalinization

c) Fidel Castro: Leader of Cuba after a revolutionary guerrilla and during the Missile Crisis

d) Eisenhower: Republican President of the USA who ended McCarthyism

12. Differentiate

a) NATO/Warsaw Pact: Military organization of the countries allied with the USA/military alliance between the USSR and their allies

b) Colonialism/Neocolonialism: Political and economic dependence on the metropole/economic dependence on the metropole

c) North Vietnam/South Vietnam: Vietnam controlled by the communists/part of Vietnam which was capitalist

d) GDR/FRG: Pro-Soviet part of Germany/capitalist part of Germany

e) North Korea/South Korea: Communist country/capitalist country

13. Image of the pulse

It is from the Daily Mail newspaper in 1962, shows the tension that existed in the relationship between Kennedy and Khrushchev. Photo of the wall: It referred to the rivalry between the two superpowers (United States and the USSR) reflected the opposing values of the two economic and political systems. The United States predominance of a capitalist market economy. The USSR implemented a state-run economy

14. Why did relations between the allies deteriorate after the end of the Second World War?

Las occidentales desconfiaban de las intenciones de la URRS.

15. What was the Berlin Blockade? How did the USA respond to it?

Los soviéticos bloquearon por tierra Berlín. Los occidentales mantuvieron un puente aéreo.

16. How was the State of Israel created? How was the territory divided?

La ONU dividió la Palestina británica en dos estados, uno árabe y otro judío

17. What was the Bandung Conference? What goals were proposed?

La Conferencia de Bandung fue una reunión realizada en Indonesia, en abril de 1955, en la que participaron varias naciones asiáticas y africanas.

18. What is neocolonialism and how does it differ from colonialism?

The use of economic, political, cultural, or other pressures to control or influence other countries, especially former dependencies. Colonialism is the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically.