Consheft: a diver who lives and operates both inside and outside a submarine refuge for an extended period

Alvin: is a manned deep-ocean research submersible owned by the United States Navy and operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts

A water bottle: is a container that is used to hold water, liquids or other beverages for consumption.

. Reversing thermometer: oceanographic device for measuring underwater temperature and pressure.

 Aluminaut: was the world’s first aluminium submarine. An experimental vessel, the 80-ton, 15.5-metre (51 ft) manned deep-ocean research submersible was built by Reynolds Metals Company, which was seeking to promote the utility of aluminium.

dip net: A net or wire mesh bag attached to a handle, used especially to scoop fish from water.

Current Meters: An acoustic current meter is a set of transducers fixed in a frame. Acoustic current meters are used to measure the velocity and direction of currents and waves

 terrigenous sediments: are those derived from the erosion of rocks on land; that is, they are derived from terrestrial (as opposed to marine) environments. … Sources of terrigenous sediments include volcanoes, weathering of rocks, wind-blown dust, grinding by glaciers, and sediment carried by icebergs. 

Biogenous sediments: are formed from the remnants of organisms that refused to be dissolved. … In deeper waters, shells of plankton and other microscopic organisms form these kinds of sediments

Cosmogenous sediment: is sediment that is derived from outside the earth. This is usually in the context of minor stardust or broken down asteroid particles. One can usually identify an accumulation of the cosmogenous sediment in areas where there is minor terrigenous sediment and by testing the isotopes. 

Who discovered the Titanic in 1985? Dr. Robert Ballard couldn’t sleep. It was the early morning of September 1, 1985, and the 43-year-old oceanographer was lying in his bunk aboard the research vessel Knoor.

Morse code:  may be represented as a binary code, and that is what telegraph operators do when transmitting messages.

List sea types

New Ice: A general term for recently formed ice which includes frazil ice, grease ice, slush and shuga. These types of ice are composed of ice crystals which are only weakly frozen together (if at all) and have a definite form only while they are afloat.

Nilas: A thin elastic crust of ice, easily bending on waves and swell and under pressure growing in a pattern of interlocking “fingers” (finger rafting). Nilas has a matte surface and is up to 10 cm in thickness and may be subdivided into dark nilas and light nilas.

Young Ice: Ice in the transition stage between nilas and first-year ice, 10-30 cm in thickness. May be subdivided into grey ice and grey-white ice.

First-year Ice: Sea ice of not more than one winter’s growth, developing from young ice; 30 cm or greater. It may be subdivided into thin first-year ice – sometimes referred to as white ice -, medium first-year ice and thick first-year ice.

Old Ice: Sea ice which has survived at least one summer’s melt. Topographic features generally are smoother than first-year ice. It maybe subdivided into second-year ice and multiyear ice. 

Marine mammals are classified into four different groups: cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises), pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses), sirenians (manatees and dugongs), and marine fissipeds (polar bears and sea otters). There are over 70 different species of cetaceans that spend their whole lives in water. 

Baleen: is a filter-feeder system inside the mouths of baleen whales. The baleen system works by a whale opening its mouth underwater and taking in water.

Flukes: They have a cartilaginous fluke at the end of their tails that is used for propulsion. The fluke is set horizontally on the body, unlike fish, which have vertical tails.

Blowhole:  is the hole at the top of a cetacean’s head through which the animal breathes air. It is homologous with the nostril of other mammals, and evolved via gradual movement of the nostrils to the top of the head.

ventral pleats: creases that run vertically down the underside of a whale’s jaw all the way to its stomach. When feeding, the ventral pleats expand like an accordion to accommodate ahuge amount of food-rich water.

The melon: is a mass of adipose tissue found in the forehead of all toothed whales.

Clicks: Whales are very social creatures that travel in groups called “pods.” They use a variety of noises to communicate and socialize with each other. The three main types of sounds made by whales are clicks, whistles, and pulsed calls. Clicks are believed to be for navigation and identifying physical surroundings.

Echolocation: is the use of sound waves and echoes to determine where objects are in space.

Explain the peril that cetaceans face due to military sonar: Is it true that military sonar exercises actually kill marine wildlife? Unfortunately for many whales, dolphins and other marine life, the use of underwater sonar (short for sound navigation and ranging) can lead to injury and even death.