Canadian History: War of 1812, Confederation, and Immigration

Alexander Macomb: American Land Commander

Alexander Macomb was an American land commander during the Plattsburg Treaty of Ghent on December 24, 1814 in Belgium. The peace settlement ended the war and restored territory and relations with Britain to prewar status. The Battle of New Orleans in January 1815 halted America’s westward expansion and control of the Mississippi River. It was a victory for the Americans, led by Andrew Jackson, and poorly executed by the British. Lord Castlereagh, the British foreign secretary, offered to discuss a peace settlement that would end the war. The Rush-Bagot Agreement of 1817 limited the number of armed vessels each nation could sail on the Great Lakes.

Post Confederation

The Dominion of Canada was formed in 1867, with John A. Macdonald as the Prime Minister. The Canadian Pacific Railway was part of the National Policy and allowed settlers to move into empty lands in western Canada. John A. Macdonald was a Conservative Prime Minister and a nation builder. The Pacific Scandal involved Macdonald receiving money from Alan’s company to build and gave Macdonald $360,000. Territories were denied provincial status because they hadn’t applied. PEI joined Canada in 1873 because Canada agreed to pay its colonial debt. Manitoba was home to a large First Nations population. British Columbia joined Canada for the railway, money, and debt. The National Policy was designed to promote national unity and improve economic prosperity. Clifford Sifton, the Minister of the Interior, did a great deal to increase immigration. The Chinese Head Tax and Chinese Exclusion Act were passed to discourage Chinese immigration to Canada. The Komagata Maru incident involved a vessel carrying 276 East Indian refugees that arrived in Vancouver harbour in 1914 and were denied entry and forced back to Asia with all of its passengers on board. The federal government recently apologized to everyone aboard.


Immigration to Canada was desired from White, English, Christians, and farmers. The