What is Biology? The study of living organisms, their structure, evolution, functioning, distribution and interrelationships.

The term “Biology” derives from two Greek words which are? What do they mean?Bios- Life Logos- Study

What is the name of the scientists who conduct work related to this natural science? Biologists

What do biologists study? Study the structure, function, growth, origin, evolution and distribution of living organisms

List four examples of places where biologists work?

Labs industries Fields Zoos

List four examples of activities that biologists carry out at work

Discover diseases Develop new theories Write articles and books Discover new treatments

Biochemistry Study of chemical reactions that occur in living organisms

EX- work inlabs and study those chemical reactions.

Botany Study of plants, including agriculture EX – perform both lab and field work to study plants

Cellular Biology Study of the basic ccellular units of living organisms

EX – work in labs and perform experiments to study cells

Ecology Study of how organisms interact with their environment

EX – work in both fields and labs to study those interactions

Evolutionary Biologists Study of the origins and changes in the diversity of life over time EX – work both in fields and in labs. They study fossils.

Genetics Study of heredity (how DNA passes from one generation to another – from parents to their offspring) EX – work in labs and perform experiments to understand how the mechanism of heredity works

Molecular Biology Study of the biological molecules that make up living

organisms EX – Work in labs and study the macromolecules of liife.

Physiology Study of the functions and mechanisms which work within the living organisms and their parts. EX – work in labs and hospitals. They study humans, animals, plants, etc.

Zoology Study of animals, ncluding animal behavior

EX – work in fields and labs. They study animals.

Scientific Method Steps

1. State a problem or ask a question

2. Make a hypothesis

3. Test hypothesis through experimentation (possible solutions)

4. Draw a conclusion

5. Make new hypothesis (if necessary)

Parts of a lab report

1. Research Question

2. Hypothesis

3. Materials and Methods

4. Results and Data analysis

5. Discussion

6. Conclusion

scientific statements

– Earth is the 3rd closest planet to the sun y Earth has 1 moon

Pseudoscience statements

– It is always sunny in South California y Santa Claus is real

Dependent Variable the measurable (y)  

independent variable. no controlas ejemplo months measured

variable that is manipulated (x) 

Mean: promedio (sumas todos y divides por cuantos numeros hayas sumado) 

Median: ordenar de mayor a menor y el numero de la mitad

Mode: el/los numeros que mas se repiten

Asexual Reproduction A process by which a single parent reproduces by itself

Sexual Reproduction

Reproductive process involving 2 parents which combine their genetic material to produce a new organism

Bacteria Single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus

Carbohydrates starches and sugars present in food


Thread-like structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes

Diploid Cells Cell containing two sets of chromosomes (1 from each parent)

Haploid Cells Cell containing only one set of chromosomes

Fungi A kingdom made of non-green eukaryotic organisms with no means of movement

Protoza One-celled organisms that are more complex than bacteria

Virus A tiny nonliving particle that invades and then reproduces inside a living cell

Lipids Fats, oils and waxes (energy rich organic compounds)

Proteins Chains of amino acids

nucleic acids Macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus – DNA and RNA

What is the cell? A cell is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known organisms and the smallest unit of life.

Centriole Cell organelle that aids in cell division (only animal)

Ribosomes Makes proteins

Cytoplasm jelly-like liquid that holds organelles in place

Smooth ER Makes lipids and fats

Rough ER Transports and storages proteins

Nucleus A part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction

Lysosomes Contains digestive enzymes (only animals)

cell membrane A cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell.

Mitochondria powerhouse of the cell, produces ATP (energy)

Vacuole in charge of storing water, food and waste

Golgi apparatus System of membranes that modifies proteins and packages them for export

Vesicle Small membrane sacs that specialize on moving products into, out of or within the cell

cell wall Rigid structure surrounding cell membrane, provides support to the cell (only plants)

Chloroplast Produce food for plants by absorbing sunlight (conductors of photosynthesis) (only plants)

which organelles are only present in animal cells.Centriole Lysosomes

which organelles are only present in plant cells cell wall chloroplast

Describe all the steps that you must carry out to observe a sample under the microscope

Plug into powersource

Turn on the light

Place one of the samples under the stage clips situated in the stage and make sure it is centered

Rotate the lense to 4x hear the click

Use the coarse adjustment knob to make the image clear

Use the fine adjustment knob to make the image HD

Observe sample and record results and characteristics

Change lens to 10x and hear it click

Repeat steps 6 and 7

Change lens to 40x and hear it click

Repeat steps 6 and 7

Remove sample from stage clips

Turn off lights and unplug the microscope

**For 10x and 40x only use fine adjustment knob

Metabolism and why its important

It is the sum of all chemical reactions within the cells of living organisms. Important since it allows organisms to transform chemical energy stored in molecules into energy that can be used for cellular processes, provides organisms with energy and gets rid of waste left from chemical reactions.

Which macromolecules are either build up or broken down through metabolic reactions?

Food to energy

Energy to proteins

Proteins to waste

definition of enzyme and explain how they work Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions)

why enzymes are important in metabolism They are important since they break down large nutrient molecules, such as proteins, fats, and carbohydrates, into smaller molecules.

Definition of anabolic reaction. Plus, list and describe two examples of anabolic reactions that occur in living organisms. Anabolic reactions are reactions that build up macromolecules and require energy to occur.

Glycerol reacts with fatty acids to create lipids

Carbon dioxide and water react to form glucose and oxygen in/during photosynthesis

Definition of catabolic reaction. Plus, list and describe two examples of catabolic reactions that occur in living organisms. Catabolic reactions break down foods. Larger molecules are separated in order to create smaller ones.

In respiration glucose is broken down in order to form carbon dioxide and water

The breakdown of fat in adipose tissue to form fatty acids

Describe the components of a well-balanced diet Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins (main three), vitamins, minerals and water