Bio 105/106

Exam 1 Study Guide

Chapter 1: Science is a process:  1) Observation    2) Question  form formal hypothesis (what is a hypothesis?)    3) Test through experimentation    4) Analyze data  make conclusions    5) Communicate findings  restart testing additional questions Hypothesis vs. Predictions. Experiments: Controls,  Variables (Independent & Dependent)   Results displayed by Graphs: Bar graphs – categorical independent variable; measured dependent variable   Histogram – looks like bar graph; continuous independent variable; “counts/frequency” for dependent variable   Line graph – functional relationship (X depends on Y); correlation ≠ causation!!

“scientific theory = explanation that is supported by multiple lines of evidence; no evidence against the explanation.”.  A couple scientific theories: Cell theory: states that all living organisms are made of cells. 

Theory of general relativity; Gravitation and spacetime

Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection:  The ones that are to adapt will survive. Because they prepared for the adversity.  The STRONG SURVIVE.

Chapter 2 Life: 5 functional traits: all living organisms grow, reproduce maintain homeostasis, sense & respond to stimuli, obtain & use energy.

 All Matter is made of elements. Elements combine to form molecules. Molecules containing covalently bonded Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen are considered organic.

 Life is composed of 4 types of organic molecules: Lipids, Proteins, Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acids.

 Organic Molecule: Carbon-based backbone w/ ≥1 C-H bond  (C, H, O, N)

Subunit Biological uses Specific examples: Carbohydrates : Monosaccharides

 Proteins :amino acids, Lipids ( no subunits, all lipids are hydrophobic molecules),Nucleic acids: nucleotides. 

Carbohydrate Monosaccharides (simple sugars, like glucose)

Energy storage, structural support

Starch & glycogen, cellulose in cell walls

Lipid Fatty acids, sterols (not a true monomer-polymer)

Energy storage, hormones, cell membranes

Triglycerides (“fats”), estrogen, phospholipids & cholesterol Lipids

Protein Amino Acids Enzymes, cell membrane structures, cellular movement

Catalase, membrane channels & pores

Nucleic Acids Nucleotides Information storage DNA, RNA

Cells are bags of water: phospholipids (mainly) and proteins (less numerous) make a barrier between the intracellular and extracellular environments.

Chapter 3: Cell Theory: All living things are made of cells, cells arises from other cells.  

Main basic classification of living organisms:

Types of cells they are: Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic. 

Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound compartments: organelles. Examples of Eukaryotes: animals, plants, fungus, protists.

 Prokaryotic cells lack these membrane-bound organelles. Although they do contain ribosome’s, which synthesize proteins, and DNA. Example, bacteria. Organelle Function- Nucleus “brain,” memory bank; stores genetic information DNA.

 Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: Houses ribosomes; protein synthesis

 Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: Lipid synthesis

 Diffusion – movement of molecules from high concentration (density) to low concentration. Osmosis – a particular case of diffusion involving water molecules across a membrane. Often cell membranes, which are semi-permeable.

 Solution – a mixture of one or more molecules within a liquid. Solute – the molecules dissolved into a solution.

 Solvent – the main liquid component of a solution

Tonicity – the relative abundance of solutes within a solution. We are usually comparing the relative tonicity of 2 solutions to each other.

Hypotonic – having less solute concentration than another solution.

Hypertonic – having greater solute concentration relative to another solution. In Plants & Bacteria cells, their rigid cell walls prevent cell bursting due to persistent influx of water due to osmosis. – turgor pressure in plants, allows upright growth.

Golgi Body Packages molecules for movement within, or out, of cell. “Amazon Warehouse”

 Vesicle Transport compartment “FedEx trucks”

 Mitochondria- “power plants” convert energy from food into cellular energy

 Chloroplasts (Autotrophic eukaryotes only.)- Convert electromagnetic energy (light) into chemical energy.

 Lysosomes -“recycling centers” breakdown old cellular parts

 Cell wall- plants only. Not animal cells; not protist cells. Rigid protective outer structure.

Chapter 4 Be able to explain the function of enzymes in metabolism. Catalyze or speed up the chemical reactions with the activation energy.

Be able to write a hypothesis based on your observation of infographic 4.1 on page 77 of the textbook. Hunger Map

Chapter 5: What do algae, plants and cyanobacteria have in common? Photosynthesis  

Plants reflect a certain color light ray photons – what color? Green

Why are plants autotrophs? Because they capture the energy of the sunlight by photosynthesis to build organic molecules.

Energy can’t be created or destroyed, explain how energy from the sun can end up in a wolf? First plants (producers) then primary consumers through the digestive system becomes carbon and then the higher-level consumer like the wolf and then some of the carbon is incorporated in the higher level consumer.

Scientific Method Lab 1  Know the 5 parts of the scientific Method. Observation, hypothesis, experiments/observation, conclusion and scientific theory.

 Know what a pill bug (rolly poly) is.  Type of crustacean that lives on land.

Understand the classification system for living organisms and the categories from Kingdom – species. Kingdom – Plantae, Animalia, Fungi, Protists, Eubacteria (Monera), Archaebacteria.







 Explain the Binomial nomenclature used to describe a particular organism.

Microscopy Lab 2 Field of view – 2-dimensional visual field of a microscope. Depth of field – 3-Dimensional, “thickness” of your visual field. Plane of Focus – 2-dimensional plane which is in focus within the depth of field.

Compound microscope – uses 2 magnification lenses (the oculars and the objectives). Know the components (parts).

 Dissecting / stereoscopic microscope – one magnification lens (ocular) but two distinct viewing angles (each ocular sees a slightly different angle of specimen) provides 3-D view. Total magnification = ocular magnification X objective magnification. Know the components (parts).

Be able to identify a picture or fixed slide of Amoeba (mano)  Euglena (chloroplast), Volvox ( pelota) and Elodia (planta)

Chemistry Lab 3 Know the 3 reagents we used, and what they are used to detect:

Benedicts: sugar

 Biruets Protein

 Iodine: starch

Know what a negative reaction looks like compared to a positive. Monomers vs Polymers 4 types of organic molecules (see chart above in chapter 2) Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids ,Nucleic Acids

Cells & Diffusion lab Know how to distinguish prokaryotes( no nucleo)  vs eukaryote ( nucleo)

 cells Know how to distinguish animal from plant cells. (choloplast y cell wall)

Know how cell membrane prevents/allows molecules to pass (often based on size (glucose is much smaller than starch….))  Simple Difussion: Allow small molecules to pass to high concentration to small concentration  with no energy use o without help to transport proteins.

Facilitated Difussion: Large molecules cross cell membrane from areas of lower  concentration to area of higher concentration with the help of specific transport proteins, without the use of energy.

Active Transport: Large molecules cross the cell membrane from areas of low concentration to areas of high concentration with the help of specific transport proteins and chemical energy to pump molecules against the gradient.

Know function and appearance of most common cell organelles. Understand osmosis.

Terms to know and understand

Chapter 1: Scientific method, control group, placebo, dependent variable, independent variable, hypothesis, observation, scientific theory, correlation, experiment

Chapter 2: Matter, atom, proton, neutron, electron, molecule, organic, inorganic, cell, cell wall, cell membrane, carbohydrate, protein, lipid, amino acid, nucleic acid, phospholipid, hydrophilic, hydrophobic, monomer, polymer.

Chapter 3: Cell theory, Prokaryote, Eukaryote, cytoplasm, organelle, osmosis, mitochondria, chloroplast, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum (rough/smooth), Lysosome, nucleus, ribosome.

Chapter 4: Nutrients, Macronutrients, RUFT, essential amino acids, metabolism, enzyme, mineral, vitamin, catalyst.

Chapter 5: Fossil fuel, biofuel, energy, Conservation of Energy, potential energy, photosynthesis, autotroph, heterotroph,  photon, adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP).