AJ 10

ch 1: social disorganization-condition said to exist when a group is faced with social change, uneven development of culture maladaptiveness disharmony conflict and lack of consensus.
individual rights are guaranteed to all members of American society by the U.S consitution and are particularly important to all criminal defendandts facing formal processing by the criminal justice system
-in the 1990s, the perception that crime rates were increasing and that offenders were not being punished resulted in an increased focus on individual accountability
-currently, we are seeing a decrease n which types of crime? traditional crime
-one who believes that under certain circumstances involving a criminal threat to public safety, the interests of society should take precedence over individual rights is a public order advocate
social justice is an ideal that embraces all aspects of civilized life and that is linked to fundamental notions f fairness and to cultural beliefs about right and wrong.
-three major components of CJS: -police/law enforcement, the courts, corrections
consensus model best assumes that the system’s components work together harmoniously to achieve justice
-stage in criminal justice process involving taking pictures and fingerprings of a suspect: booking
-two things a judge determines at preliminary hearing: was a crime committed? is there a strong suspicion or probable cause to believe that the defendant is involved?
-by returning an indictment, the grand jury has determined that there is probable cause
-the 6th amendment to the U.S constitution gives every defendant the right to a trial by jury
-a bench trial occurs if defendant waive right to jury trial and be tried by judge
concurrent sentence permits the offender to serve sentences all at the same time consecutive one after another
the crime control model emphasizes the efficient arrest and conviction of criminal offenders
evidence based practice refers to crime fighting strategies that have been scientific, tested and are based on social science research
criminology describes scientific study of causes and prevention of crime and rehabilition and punishment of offenders
multiculturalism is one form of diversity
– a crime is a behavior for which there is no legally acceptable justification or excuse
first appearance: rights are given to defendant, charges are read, defandant given an attorney, plea is entered, bail is discussed

CH 5: the modern day sheriff is derived from shire reeve
two provisions of statute of winchester:-required citizens to respond to the hue and cry -required participation in the watch and ward
-the bow street runners were an early detective unit formed by henry fielding
-the london metropolitan police service was created by sir robert peel in 1829
-basic principle of london metropolitan police was the practice of preventative patrol
vigilantes were often the only law available to early settlers
-the first policewoman served with the LAPD
1931 report of the wickersham comission recognized prohibition as unenforceable as well as a catalyst to police corruption
-the LEAA was a federal agency that provided huge amounts of funding for research in 60’s and establised tradition of scientific police management
-results of 1974 kansas city experiment suggest that crime rate was not affected by the amount or type of patrol
-tha kansas study of response time found that rapid police response to citizen reports of crime has little effect on likelihood of arrest of suspects
-kansas study police developed new forms of directive patrol
three methods of handling a call for service involving less serious crime:
1. taking reports over the phone, using non sworn personnel to take reports, asking victims to come to station to make report
-evidence based policing uses research into everyday police procedures to evaluate current practices and to guide officers ….
-the evidence in evidence based policing: scientific evidence
three functions federal law enforcement authorized: conduct criminal investigations, execute search warrants, make arrests
three federal law enforcement agencies under department of justice: federal marshals, FBI, drug enforcement administration
-currently, main priority of FBI is counterterrorism division
-first modern state police force in pennsylvania example of centralized system of policing
sheriff of a county is elected official
-responsible for serving court papers, maintaning security within courts, runing county jails : sheriff
-largest segment of law enforcement: private protected service
-rapid growth of private security sector: increase in workplace crimes, increase in fear of crime and terrorism, fiscal crisis of the states which have limited police protection
-private security forces have been responsible for the recent decline in reported crime
-growth of modern police forces linked to gin riots in England

CH 6: -name three of the basic purposes of policing in democratic societies: enforce the law, investigate crimes and apprehend officers, prevent crime
crime prevention is a proactive approach to the problem of the crime
-compstat is a cime analysis and police management process built on crime mapping that was developed by the NYPD
quality of life offenses involve acts that create physical disorder or that reflect social decay
-broken windows model of policing preserves peace element of police mission
three core operational strategies of policing: preventative patrol, routine incident response, emergency response
preventative patrol response is the dominant operational policing strategy and is based on the ideas of sir robert peel
-three general activities involved in preliminary investigation: respond to immediate needs aid injured, initiate enforcement action, determine crime was committed 
solvability factor is info about a crime that forms the basis for determining the identity of perpetrator 
-CAPRA and SARA are examples of the methodology of police problem solving
line operations units in a police dept. carry out the daily field activities of the dept 
chain of command describes the order of authority within a police dept
-span of control: number of police personnel or units supervise by a particular supervisor
community era of policing was characterized by an increasing focus on quality of life offenses and broken windows model
-focus on professional crime fighting and solving traditional crimes is most characteristic of the reform era of policing
-james wilson three policing styles: watchman, legalistic, service
-watchman style excessive use of force
letter of the law legalistic style of policing
strategic policing expands on the traditional police goal of professional crime fighting to include nontraditional types of criminals 
three elements of community policing: increased police accountability, a decentralization of command, an emphasis on importance of non emergency services
intelligence led policing is a technique used by police in the fight against terrorism
-racial and ethnic minorities are employed in policing in numbers that approach their representation in the us population
three statements about women in policing: underrepresented, less likely than men to use excessive force, underutilized 
crime prevention focuses on reducing both crime and fear of crime

CH 7: fourth amendment prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures
fourteenth amendment: extends constitutional protections to state level criminal justice
-three areas of due process requirements: search and seizures, arrest, intelligence gathering
-landmark cases createechanges in criminal justice procedur
-according to exclusionary rule, evidence illegally seized by police cannot be used in trial
fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine: any evidence that derives from an illegal search and sezure may be declared tainted and excluded from trial
mapp v. ohio: exclusionary rule to the states
-police permitted to search if no search warrant: arestee’s immediate control
-three situations where police legally permitted to conduct warrantless searches: plain view, exigent circumstances, stop and frisk
-a search warrant can only be issued if there is probable cause
police must have legitimate right to be at the location to seize contraband under the plain view doctrine
terry v. ohio, police may conduct stop and frisk without a warrant based on reasonable suspicion
– police allowed to conduct search of someone not suspected of crime, concern for public safety
illinois v. gates, supreme court established totality of circumstances test wto see if information provided by informant may be basis for issuing warrant
inherent coercion involves tactics used by police interviewers that fall short of physical abuse but still pressure suspects to divulge info
in escobedo v. illinois the supreme court formally recognized suspect’s right to have an attorney present during interrogation
christian burial speech lead to the creation of inevitable-discovery exception
boston marathon bomber not read rights due to public safety exception
-police have to read miranda warnings prior to any questioning
-USA patriot act of 2001 expanded ability to intercept many forms of electronic communications (sneak and peek search)
-evidence relevance to criminal invest. that is not readily seen by the unaided eye: latent evidence
three special characteristics to electronic evidence: transcends national/state borders, fragile easily altered/compromised, time sensitive
warren court used fourteenth amendment 
landmark cases clarify procedural guidelines the criminal justice system must follow