ITAL:fall.o.rom.emp(476)to.creat.of.otal.by.napoleon(1805) italy no nation
LIBERAL.REV-1820carbonari:found.naplesXIX nacionalist liberals
RISORGIMIENT-rev.inic.spain.fer12.firm.const1812 3indep.war.ital

1859:cavour.1.minister.o.piedmont-sardinia want a const monarchy
1-unif nor italy territ contr by austr napolIIIof fr supor him against austria battles.o.magenta.solfernio.they defeated.austria.created.kingd.o.piedmont
sardinia piedmont lombardy and sardinia
1860:took.over.tuscany.parma.modena garibaldis redshirts conquered the two sicilys and part of papal states
1861-victor emmanuelIIof savy-proclaimed king of italy constit monarchy
1866-veneto became part of the kingd-prussia.defeat.austria
1870-papal.states-indep.helped.by.france-italians invad.roma
conflicto with vatican hasta 1929  1871-roma capital of italy

GERMAN-h.rom.emp 1st german empire in the middle ages based in romanticism common language culture and history-centripetal nat After the Congress of Vienna there were 39 states which belonged to Prussia and Austria. Prussia was a developed and industrialised state with the best army in Europe. Process: > 
1834.- Several states formed the ZOLLVEREIN, a financial union which tried to promote trade between the separate states. (economic unification) 1848.- Creation of the PARLIAMENT OF FRANKFURT for all Germans (it failed but it proved that political unification was possible) 1864.- Prussia and Austria declared the war to Denmark to recover the territories of Schleswig and Holstein. >
 1866.- Austria and Prussia fought and Prussia controlled the North. > 1867.- Prussia and other 21 states formed the North Germany Confederation. The Confederation declared the war to France tc gain the states of the South (1871) >
 1871.- The II Reich (German empire) was declared and kin Wilhelm I of Prussia was named the German Kaiser (emperor The Chancellor or prime minister was Otto Von Bismarck. TH new state was a federal state: the executive power was centred the Kaiser but the regions retained local government. 

The French (1793-1813) (1793-1795). 
War of Convention .France invaded the Basque Country and some parts of Catalonia to propagate the revolution. 
(1795)- Alliance of Spain and France was used by Napoleon in 1805 to fight against the United Kingdom. The spanich army was defeated at the Battle of Trafalgar. 
(1808-1813)- War of Independence Napoleon conquered Spain on his way to Portugal and deposed the Bourbons (Charles IV and his son Ferdinand) The new king was José Bonaparte. In Spain the army obeyed the new king, so the anti- revolutionaries organised many “guerrillas” against Napoleon. They were coordinated by a Junta General formed by anti-French dignitaries. Later, they convoked a parliament, the Cortes, in Cádiz (the only place outside of French influence) The parliament wrote the first constitution of Spain , the 1812 Constitution called “la Pepa” that established a liberal system. (page 100- Historical text commentary) Codrz my the avly rce Jee od Napeleen 
(1813)- The French army left Spain in 1813 because Napoleon sent the army to Russia. 2.
 Ferdinand VII (1813-1833) – Ferdinand VII came back from exile, abolished the Constitution of Cádiz and restored the Ancien Régime and the absolutism. 
The liberal period. (1820-1823) Military uprising led by General Riego, restored liberal ideas and Ferdinand was obliged to accept the Constitution of Cádiz In 1823 the Congress of Verona (Congress System) sent the “100,000 sons of Saint Louis” to restore Ferdinand. He installed a repressive government with absolute power until the end of his reign in 1833.  

Rebellion of the colonies. Between 1810 and 1825 the colonies of Spain and Portugal , with the exception of Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines and some other islands became independent, based on liberal and nationalist ideas. 3. 
Isabella II (1833-1843-1868) – Regency Period (1833-1843) Ferdinand died when Isabella was 3 and the crown was taken by her mother as regent. Don Carlos, Ferdinand brother thought this was illegal because the “ley Sálica” of Bourbons prevented women from becoming monarchs. But Ferdinand abolished this law with the “Pragmática Sanción” and left the throne to his daughter. Isabella was supported by the liberals or “Isabelinos” and Don Carlos by “The Carlists” or absolutist.
Dynastic dispute developed into a civil war: The First Carlist War. In general erms the Carlists were supported by the peasants, part of the nobility and the middle Clower clergy – whereas the Liberals were supported by the bourgeoisie, the High Clergy and the High Nobility, the administration and almost all the army.
i n the Basque Country, the majority of the peasants supported the Carlist ideas, because added to the slogan “God, Country, and King” they added “fueros”, the ancient laws. This was because the Basque were frightened that with the liberal laws (the same law for everyone, everywhere), the fueros would disappear. 
These different demands resulted in a civil war that took place between 1833 and 1539 in two different places: In the North, in the Basque territories, and in the East, in Aragon and Catalonia. This First Carlist War ended in Liberal victory, with the Treaty of Bergara (1839) in the North, and in 1840 in the Maestrazgo. There were two more Carlist wars, which were two unsuccessful attempts to recover the throne for the descendants of Carlos.
 When the war had finished, to avoid any more regencies, she was declared of age (when 13) and crowned Queen of Spain (1843) 
Liberal progressives (radicals) and liberal moderates governed in turn, more or Tess peacefully, (despite many coups d’état), and each of them formulated their own constitutions. 
In this period industrialisation had not really begun in Spain, which meant that in the 19th century it was still a rural country. But despite all the political and economic problems of this period, with Isabella II Spain became a liberal state. The feudal system was abolished, a new system of provinces was put into practice, there were new laws permitting commercial and industrial freedom, laws permitting the sale of administrative and church lands (“Desamortización”), a law of compulsory education, and the creation of a new national police force “La Guardia Civil”. This period ended with a rebellion, after which Isabella II went into exile. 4.
 Six revolutionary years (1868-74) In these six years there were many different political systems and governments. 
1. The provisional government of Serrano, trying to find a new monarch while creating the democratic constitution of 1869.
 2. The constitutional monarchy of Amadeus of Savoy, son of the Italian king, only lasted from the end of 1870 to the beginning of 1873. His election coincided with the assassination of General Prim, his main supporter. After that, Amadeus had with difficult situations, with unstable Spanish politics, republican to deal conspiracies, Carlist uprisings, separatism in Cuba, and several assassination attempts. With the prospect of reigning with no popular support, Amadeus abdicated from the Spanish throne on February 11, 1873. At 10 o’clock that same night, Spain was proclaimed a Republic. 2.