Revolution of 1868, called “Glorious” was held in Cadiz in September 1868, marked the dethronement of Isabel II and the beginning of the period called “Democratic Sexenio.
Causes: the revolution of 1868 is reached by the economic crisis of capitalism and the exhaustion Spanish and unpopularity dle conservatism, the political and economic crisis ended with the reign of Elizabeth II.
· Economic crisis: the financial crisis of 1866 is caused by the eviddencia that rail investment unprofitable, the working of the railway lines produced very low yields, the value of railroad shares in the stock market plummeted, there was also the fall contributions of the public debt and other securities, it caused the downfall of many owners, the bankruptcy of banks and enterprises and increasing unemployment. The financial crisis coincided with a textile crisis especially in Catalonia, the American War of Succession had made stop exports of cotton
, Which was the raw material of this industry, given its scarcity had undergone a spectacular rise, many small industries in the cotton sector could not cope with the crisis because demand had fallen by the general economic crisis, some of them closed, unemployment increased and the level of the working class worsened. Food crisis caused by poor harvests in 1866 and 1867 produced the famine uqe the price of wheat, the staple food of the Spanish population that rose 100% between 1866 and 1868.
· Political crisis and the depletion Given the unpopularity of the moderate regime: in 1868 much of the population had reason to rise against the Elizabethan system: industrialists, bankers, classes, the opposition and with the various uprisings that were developing the reaction of the Government was heavy-handed repression, the Government of Narvaez St. Daniel the night in April 1865 on a charge sends protest of university students in Madrid are the result of 9 dead and 100 wounded, the deposed queen Narvaez and appoints OO’Donnell, in 1866 the government harshly repressed O’Donnell a revolt of the sergeants of the Headquarters of San Gil in Madrid who asked for political system reform, shooting involved, because they O’Donnell was dismissed by the government following Government reigns but moderate or Gonzalez Narvaez Bravo continued to rule by decree, the courts closed and ignored the problems of the country. Given this situation, members of the opposition, progressive and democratic parties in exile met in Ostend (Belgium) in August 1866 and agreed to end the Government of the Moderates, is called “Pact of Ostend” run by the Prim progressive general, both parties established a basis for joint revolutionary action, the pact was clearly antiisabelino and the question of which political system would be established later, monarchy or republic would be decided by a Constituent Cortes elected by universal suffrage, this agreement the Democrats managed to impose universal suffrage and progressives accept the conditions provided to displace the moderates of the Government; to this Covenant in November 1867 joined the Liberal Union, after the death of O’Donnell, the Unionists led by General Serrano provided much of the high command of ejerctio that belonged to this party, depriving Isabel for their support.
Development of the Revolution of 1868: The revolution begins Sept. 17 in Cadiz, where the squadron was anchored in the bay revolted under Brigadier Topete unionist against the Government of Elizabeth II to cry Viva Spain with honor !, a decision was followed in Cadiz and the province on 18 and 19 September, General Prim progressive met with the rebels and later walked down the Mediterranean coast rousing Malaga, Almeria, Cartagena, Barcelona; quickly support the delivery has many cities like Seville, Cordoba, Ferrol, where Barcelona are the revolutionary council that organized the rebellion and launched appeals for people to join it, the revolution is advancing with little resistance, the Government and the Crown were completely isolated, its attitude had led to only count the support of those directly benefiting from his policies and very few, only the “clique” situated around the government and the queen. When the few troops loyal to the Government were defeated in Alcolea(Cordoba) by the troops of the rebels under General Serrano unionist, the government resigned and the queen went into exile to France on 29 September 1868. In the Revolution of 1868 there were several revolutions: first progressive parties (Prim) and unionist (Serrano), which aimed to overthrow the government and the other the of Democrats, Republicans and classes, whose aims were the abolition of consumption, of villas, land distribution, proclamation of the republic. The signatories of the Pact of Ostend formed a Provisional Government, ordered disovler Boards and disarm the National Militia. The Provisional Government headed by Serrano placed as head of government and Prim Minister of War and launched a program of reform: freedom of press, right and assembly and association, universal male suffrage was Parobé education reform, democratization of Provincial Councils and the emancipation of the children of slaves in the colonies in the confiscation economy restarted, peseta as the monetary unit, Adopting free trade and opening the Spanish market to foreign capital. At the same time are called Constitutional Courts with universal male suffrage Diernæs victory to the coalition government: progressives, unionists and a section of Democrats and created three major minorities in the Courts: Carlist, moderates and Republicans, the Courts developed the 1869 Constitution clearly a Liberal Democrat, proclaimed National Sovereignty, confirming the universal male suffrage. In this constitution remains the monarchy as a form of government, with separation of powers: the Courts Tengra the legislature, the executive and the king proclaimed the independence of the judiciary, creating a system to judge competitions.
REIGN OF Amadeo (1870-1873)
Constiitucion In 1869 it is determined that the form of government is constitutional monarchy. Emerged several candidates to replace Llos Bourbons: the Duke of Montpensier, brother of Elizabeth, the Unionist candidate, Guillermo de Hohenzollerns; Espartero, Alfonso de Bourbon, son of Elizabeth II, Amadeus of Savoy. General Prim was in charge of complex and probing engociaciones foreign ambassadors to find international consensus on the candidate, the election was Amadeus of Savoy, son of Victor Emmanuel, King of Italy, who had conducted Italian unification (had a fierce battle with the Church). The monarch was elected king by the Cortes in November 1870 as king of a democratic monarchy and came to Spain on 30 December, before the assassination of Prim in Madrid on January 2 of 1871 was proclaimed king in Parliament. The assassination of Prim weakened the coalition between unionists, progressives and Democrats, Amadeo lacked a solid support among social groups, politicians and society sophomore:
· From the political standpoint. Opposition from moderates loyal to the Bourbons, they steered the party toward the cause alfonsina, wanted to return to rule the Bourbon dynasty with Prince Alfonso, son of Elizabeth II; Canovas del Castillo was the one directing this option. The option alfonsina was supported by the Church against Amadeo, the figure of his father and by a decree of Prim forcing the church to swear allegiance to the Constitution of 1869. The Carlist are divided into two trends: a return to the sector and another armed insurrection is a political force, opposed to the new monarchy and conservative positions. Neither Republicans nor had the popular classes.
· Respect for the money elite, neutral at first, gradually distrust of a king who presided over a regime that was meant to bring out a legislation that went against their interests, such as the abolition of slavery in Cuba, regulation of child labor , mixed juries in business.
Problems Reign: Amadeo was proclaimed King in January 1871 to renounce the throne in February 1873, continuing difficulties:
– First Carlist supporters sectors insurrectionary life is up in arms again, is the Third Carlist War (1872-1876), is a candidate for Charles VII, son of Carlos Maria Isidro, the rebellion began in the Country Basque and spread to areas of Catalonia and Navarra.
– Moreover, in 1868 he had begun in Cuba, with so-called “Grito de Yara,” War of the decade, inspired by the Creole planters Cubans were quickly and popular support by promising an end to slavery in the island. Although the Government attempted to carry forward a project to abolish slavery and grant political reforms, the refusal of the Spanish economic sectors with interests in Cuba frustrate the possibility of a peaceful and war become a serious problem for the Government.
– Also in 1872, there were a series of federal insurrection, especially anarchist character, who although they were quickly repressed, made even more unstable the regime.
– The key element that led to the final crisis of the reign of Amadeus of Savoy was the disintegration of the coalition government (progressives, unionists and Democrats) in this period occurred six governments and had to call for elections three times, while the opposition , from 1872, practiced a total abstention as a form of political pressure, the king finally deprived of all support renounce the throne on 11 February 1873.
The First Republic (1873-1874)
The implantation of the First Republic:
When Amadeo I abdication on 11 February 1873, the same day meet Members and Senators in the National Assembly who had monarchical majority and in which there was a Republican minroria divided into Federalists and Unitarians, a Republican congressman federalist Francisco Pi and Margall Asamble proposes to vote on the Establishment of the Republic, without identifying the type of Republic (federal or unitary), which would decide the Constituent; unit Republican Emilio Castelar up to the rostrum of Parliament and encourages support to the Republic , takes place the rating are the result of 258 votes for and 32 against, with what was proclaimed with Aplia most Spanish Republic. In subsequent years will have 5 presidents: Figueras, Pi y Maragall, Salmeron, Castelar Serrano.
Governments and problems of the Republic:
In the session on 11 February he was elected President of the Executive
, Figueras. His government was formed by progressive and federal Republicans, most notably Pi y Maragall as Minister of the Interior. Approach the Government with a desperate economic situation, a large deficit, but an acute economic crisis exacerbated by political instability and the continuation of the Carlist Wars and Cuban. Labor organizations responded with strikes and demonstrations. The Republic was received with enthusiasm by the masses occupied uqe Republican municipal corporations and boards constituted revolutionary support it. In the cities, popular revolts occur, demanding the abolition of the octroi and the fifth. The Government’s advocacy of respect the law and maintain order, dissolve boards and repress the riots.
Problems of the Republic: Besides the little support they had and the economic crisis, the Republic will have to cope with the Carlist War, the Cuban War and the cantons.
The Carlist War began in 1872 continues, will extend through Catalonia, Teruel and Cuenca, consolidating in the Basque provinces and Maestazgo; Charles VII installed capital in Estella. The war continued until 1876.
Cuba’s War launched in 1868 also continued, the Republic was unable to improve the situation, because the authorities and Spanish officials in Cuba, were supporters of the Bourbon Restoration Project and acted outside the Republican government.
The Constituent Cortes convovo Government in May, as the Constitution of 1869 was a monarchy, in this election there is a large abstention, achieving the majority of federal seats Republicans. Discussed the form of government of the Republic, will vote on June 8 and passed the Federal Democratic Republic with a large majority.
On 10 June, President Figueres leaves the presidency and was appointed as the new president Pi y Maragall, Federal Republican Benevolent, focuses on the drafting the new constitution and the approval of laws of social character: abolition of esclacitud, free and compulsory education, separation of Church and State, the right to unionization, we choose a committee of parliamentarians to draft a constitution, Which will be presented to Parliament on 17 July, which declared the federal organization of the Republic; 15 federal states were recognized but Cuba and Puerto Rico. On July 12, in the Levant and southern Spain comes at cantonal level, population targeted by the Republicans and radicalized by federal intransigent anarchists rioted in a number of localities (cantons), which declared independence (states within a republic Federal).
The Cartagena home where the rebels took the town hall and formed the Revolutionary Junta. Lso proclaimed following cantons: Cartagena, Castellon, Valencia, Alicante, Granada, Malaga, Seville, Cadiz, Salamanca, Torrevieja, Almansa, Bailen, Andujar, Tarifa and Algeciras; wanted to force the process of implantation of the Federal republic from below and force, which was in the making process in the courts. The Constitution not to become approved.
Pi y Maragall resigned in July and is elected Salmeron, initiate military action against the movement and to quell Cantonalist with the exception of Cartagena but resigned in September unable to sign the death sentences imposed by the military authority to the leaders of the canton.
Castelar is elected, republican unitary, fearing to be impeached because he lacked a majority in Parliament, suspended parliamentary sessions and ruled authoritatively, granting wide powers to military commanders, to maintain public order (according to the Carlist War, the Cuban and Cartagena in the canton of asset).
In January 1874 the courts were reopened and voted on the management of his government was defeated by 120 votes to 100; resigns Castelar and prepares to elect a new President, it was predictable a turn to the left, but the troops of General Pavia, a Republican and supporter of Castelar unit prevent it; Pavia is located outside the building with his staff and sent two aides to order the President of the Cortes, the disoluciond and the session and the eviction of the building in 5 minutes. The Civil Guard who were guarding the building step by orders of General and occupy the corridors of parliament immediately left the building. Castelar Pavia offered to continue in office, but he refused, not wanting to stay in power by undemocratic methods. The power shift to a coalition of monarchists and republicans unit under General Serrano unionist, I proclaim the Unitary Republic and established a republican regime of conservative character, regardless of the courts during his tenure was subjected canton de Cartagena.
End of the Republic: On December 1, 1874, the son of Isabel II, Alfonso de Borbon signed the Manifesto called Sandhurst (military academy in England), in which the future King guaranteed a conversational monarchy, constitutional and democratic. Antonio Canovas del Castillo, who had written the text, preparing a return to monarchy peacefully and without military intervention. But the monarchist General Martinez Campos advance and carried out a statement on 29 December in Sagunto proclaimed King Alfonso. The government offered no resistance and resigned, thus ending the First Republic. Canovas Regency formed a cabinet on the 31st and told Alfonso, then in Paris and at 17, he was proclaimed king of Spain. Alfonso arrived in Spain in January 1875 and begin the restoration.