101 Fascinating Earth Facts: From Volcanoes to Earthquakes & Beyond

1. What is the hottest place on Earth?

While you might think it’s Death Valley in California, you’d be slightly off. Many days it is indeed incredibly hot there, but on September 13, 1922, El Azizia, Libya recorded a scorching temperature of 136 degrees Fahrenheit (57.8 degrees Celsius). This surpasses the highest ever temperature measured in Death Valley, which was 134 degrees F (56.6 º C), recorded on July 10, 1913.

2. And what is the coldest place on Earth?

The coldest temperature ever measured on Earth was a bone-chilling -129 º F (-89 º C) at Vostok, Antarctica, on July 21, 1983.

3. What creates thunder?

If you guessed lightning, you’re on the right track! The intense heat from lightning, nearly five times the temperature of the Sun, causes the surrounding air to expand faster than the speed of sound. This rapid expansion compresses the air, creating a shock wave that we hear as thunder.

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4. Can rocks float?

Believe it or not, some rocks can float! During a volcanic eruption, the violent separation of gas from lava produces a frothy rock called pumice, which is filled with gas bubbles. Geologists say that some pumice stones are so porous that they can actually float on water.

Translator’s Note: It appears that pumice stones in the U.S. are not as common as in Spain.

5. Can rocks grow?

Yes, rocks can grow, but it’s an incredibly slow process. Some rocks, called ferro-manganese crusts, grow on mountains under the sea. These crusts form from the slow precipitation of suspended matter in seawater, growing at a rate of about 1 millimeter every million years. To put that in perspective, your fingernails grow at that rate approximately every two weeks.

6. How much space dust falls to Earth each year?

Estimates vary, but the USGS suggests that at least 1,000 million grams, or about 1,000 tons, of space dust enters the Earth’s atmosphere and reaches the surface each year. Some scientists even theorize that microbes have rained down from space and that extraterrestrial organisms are responsible for flu epidemics. However, this latter claim remains untested.

7. How far can wind carry common dust?

A 1999 study revealed that African dust can travel across the Atlantic Ocean, reaching the coast of Florida. This dust, carried by strong winds from North Africa, can reach altitudes of 20,000 feet (6,100 meters) and is then transported by ocean winds. Similarly, dust from China has been found to make its way to North America.

8. Where are the highest waterfalls in the world?

Angel Falls in Venezuela boasts a breathtaking drop of 3,212 feet (979 meters), making it the highest waterfall in the world.

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9. What two major cities in North America are destined to merge?

The San Andreas Fault, which runs from north to south, is slipping at a rate of 2 inches (five centimeters) per year. This movement is causing Los Angeles to slowly inch closer to San Francisco. Scientists predict that in about 15 million years, LA will become a suburb of the Bay Area.

10. Is the Earth perfectly spherical?

Due to the Earth’s rotation and its somewhat flexible nature, our planet actually bulges at the equator, giving it a slightly squashed, pumpkin-like shape. For centuries, this equatorial bulge has been shrinking, but recent studies show that it’s now growing. Scientists attribute this growth to the accelerated melting of glaciers, which is redistributing mass on Earth’s surface.

11. How much would a person who weighs 100 pounds (45.36 kgs) on Earth weigh on Mars?

The gravity on Mars is about 38% of Earth’s gravity at sea level. Therefore, a person weighing 100 pounds (45.36 kgs) on Earth would weigh a mere 38 pounds (17.24 kgs) on Mars. However, it will likely be decades before we can test this directly with human missions to Mars.

Translator’s note: Needless to say, 100 kg on Earth is equivalent to 38 kgs on Mars.

12. How long is a Martian year?

A year on Mars, also known as a Martian year, is equivalent to 687 Earth days. This is almost twice as long as an Earth year, which is 365 days. Due to Mars’ different rotational period (see Question 13), Martian calendars consist of 670 Martian days, with extra days added in leap years to maintain accuracy.

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13. How long is an average Martian day?

A Martian day, or”sol” is slightly longer than an Earth day, lasting 24 hours and 37 minutes, compared to our 23 hours and 56 minutes. The length of a day on any planet in our solar system is determined by the time it takes for that planet to complete one full rotation on its axis.

14. What is the world’s largest volcano?

Here on Earth, the title of largest volcano belongs to Mauna Loa in Hawaii. Measured from its base on the ocean floor, it rises over 50,000 feet (9.5 miles or 15.2 kilometers). However, this pales in comparison to Olympus Mons on Mars, which towers 16 miles (26 kilometers) above the Martian surface. Its base is so vast that it would almost cover the entire state of Arizona.

Translator’s note: The figures (which I just translated) on Mauna Loa seem wrong to me because I understand that this volcano is located just 9 kilometers above the ocean floor, and 4 kilometers above sea level.

15. What was the deadliest earthquake ever known?

The most devastating earthquake in recorded history struck central China in 1557. The earthquake ravaged a region where many people lived in caves carved into soft rock. These dwellings collapsed, resulting in an estimated 830,000 deaths. Another catastrophic earthquake hit Tangshan, China, in 1976, claiming the lives of over 250,000 people.

16. What has been the strongest earthquake to happen recently?

The 1960 Chilean earthquake, which occurred along the coast, had a magnitude of 9.6 and ripped open a fault line extending over 1,000 miles (1,600 kilometers) long. An earthquake of this magnitude striking a major city would pose a significant challenge to even the most advanced construction techniques.

17. Which earthquake was more catastrophic: the Kobe, Japan earthquake or the Northridge, California earthquake?

The 1995 Kobe earthquake, with a magnitude of 6.8, was far more devastating than the 1994 Northridge earthquake, which had a magnitude of 6.7. The Kobe earthquake resulted in 5,530 deaths, 37,000 injuries, and economic losses of $100 billion. In contrast, the Northridge earthquake caused 60 deaths, 9,000 injuries, and an estimated $40 billion in damage.

18. How far is the center of the Earth?

The distance from the Earth’s surface to its center is approximately 3,963 miles (6,378 kilometers). While much of Earth’s interior is liquid, the solid outer layer, or crust, is relatively thin, averaging just 41 miles (66 kilometers) thick. To put that in perspective, it’s thinner than the skin of an apple.

19. What is the highest mountain?

Mount Everest, located in the Nepal-Tibet section of the Himalayas, stands as the highest mountain above sea level, reaching a staggering altitude of 29,035 feet (nearly 9 kilometers). In 1999, precise measurements using the Global Positioning System (GPS) added an extra 7 feet (2.13 meters) to its official height.

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20. Has the moon always been this far away?

Billions of years ago, the Moon was much closer to Earth. In fact, about 1 billion years ago, it orbited close enough that it took only 20 days to circle our planet, resulting in a much shorter month. An Earth day back then lasted just 18 hours. The Moon is still moving away from us, albeit slowly, at a rate of about 1.6 inches (4 centimeters) per year. Meanwhile, Earth’s rotation is gradually slowing down, lengthening our days. In the distant future, an Earth day will last a whopping 960 hours!

21. What is the lowest point on Earth?

The lowest point on Earth’s land surface is the shoreline of the Dead Sea, bordering Jordan in the Middle East. It lies approximately 1,300 feet (400 meters) below sea level. Bad Water in Death Valley, California, comes in a distant second at 282 feet (86 meters) below sea level.

22. California won’t sink any further, right?

Unfortunately, some parts of California are sinking, and it’s a serious concern. The excessive pumping of groundwater reserves, a problem seen in other parts of the U.S. as well, is causing the ground to sink in some areas by as much as 4 inches (11 centimeters) per year. This subsidence threatens water and waste treatment systems.

23. What is the longest river?

The Nile River, flowing through Africa, claims the title of the world’s longest river, measuring an impressive 4,160 miles (6,695 kilometers) in length.

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24. Which U.S. states are most prone to earthquakes?

Alaska experiences frequent seismic activity, with a magnitude 7 earthquake occurring almost every year and earthquakes of magnitude 8 or greater striking approximately every 14 years. On the other hand, Florida and North Dakota have the lowest seismic hazard index in the U.S., even lower than New York.

25. What is the driest place on Earth?

Arica, Chile, holds the record for the driest place on Earth, receiving a minuscule 0.03 inches (0.76 mm) of rain per year. At that rate, it would take a century to fill a single cup of coffee!

26. What causes landslides?

Landslides can be triggered by various factors. Intense rainfall over a short period can saturate the soil, causing rapid debris flows and shallow landslides. Prolonged periods of steady rainfall can lead to deeper, slower-moving landslides. Different soil and rock types also have varying susceptibilities to landslides. The economic toll of landslide damage is substantial, reaching an estimated $2 billion annually in the U.S. alone. In January 1982, a severe storm in San Francisco triggered a record-breaking 18,000 landslides in a single night, causing $66 million in property damage and tragically claiming 25 lives.

27. How fast can mud flow?

Landslides and mudflows can move at astonishing speeds, exceeding 100 mph (160 km/h) in some cases.

28. Do things flow inside the Earth?

Absolutely! In 1999, scientists discovered that molten material within and around the Earth’s core moves in swirling patterns, forming vortices similar to tornadoes and hurricanes. As you’ll learn later in this list, the Earth’s core exhibits other strange behaviors as well.

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29. What is the wettest place on Earth?

Lloro, Colombia, experiences an average annual rainfall of 523.6 inches (over 40 feet or 13 meters), making it the wettest place on Earth. That’s about 10 times the average rainfall of major European or North American cities.

30. Does Earth go through phases like the moon?

From the perspective of Mars, Earth does indeed go through phases, just like the Moon does from our viewpoint.

31. What is the longer canyon: the Grand Canyon or Valles Marineris?

While the Grand Canyon is an impressive natural wonder, it’s dwarfed by Valles Marineris on Mars. The Grand Canyon’s main branch stretches for 277 miles (446 kilometers), but Valles Marineris extends over a colossal 3,000 miles (4,800 kilometers). If superimposed on a map of the United States, it would stretch from New York City to Los Angeles! Some parts of this massive Martian scar plunge to depths of 5 miles (8 kilometers).

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32. What is the deepest canyon in the U.S.?

Hells Canyon, carved by the Snake River along the border of Idaho and Oregon, is the deepest canyon in the United States. It plunges to depths of over 8,000 feet (2.4 kilometers). In comparison, the Grand Canyon is just over a mile deep, reaching a maximum depth of about 6,000 feet (1,830 meters).

33. Is Earth the largest rocky planet in the solar system?

Yes, but not by much! Earth’s diameter at the equator is 7,926 miles (12,756 kilometers), while Venus, the second largest rocky planet, measures 7,521 miles (12,104 kilometers) in diameter. Mercury and Mars, the other two inner rocky planets, are significantly smaller. Pluto is also rocky but considerably smaller (and some argue that it’s not even a planet).

34. How many volcanoes on Earth have erupted in recorded history?

There are records of eruptions from 540 volcanoes on Earth. However, the number of submarine volcanic eruptions throughout history remains unknown.

35. Is air mostly oxygen?

Contrary to popular belief, Earth’s atmosphere is primarily composed of nitrogen, which makes up about 80% of the air we breathe. Oxygen accounts for most of the remaining 20%, with trace amounts of other gases.

36. What is the highest waterfall in the United States?

Yosemite Falls, cascading down a granite cliff in Yosemite National Park, California, is the highest waterfall in the United States, with a total drop of 2,425 feet (739 meters).

37. What percentage of the planet’s water is in the oceans?

About 97% of Earth’s water is saltwater found in the oceans, which cover approximately two-thirds of the planet’s surface.

38. Which landmass contains the largest reserve of freshwater on the planet?

The vast ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland hold approximately 70% of Earth’s freshwater reserves. The remaining freshwater is found in the atmosphere, rivers, lakes, and underground aquifers, which account for only 1% of Earth’s total water.

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39. What is the largest ocean on Earth?

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth’s oceanic divisions, covering an area of 64 million square miles (165 million km2). It’s more than twice the size of the Atlantic Ocean and has an average depth of 2.4 miles (3.9 kilometers).

40. Why are there fewer craters on Earth’s surface compared to the Moon?

Earth’s surface is constantly reshaped by geological and meteorological processes. Over millions of years, plate tectonics, erosion, and volcanic activity have erased much of the evidence of past impacts. While some impact craters remain visible, they are often obscured by vegetation, eroded by wind and rain, or altered by earthquakes and landslides. In contrast, the Moon lacks an atmosphere, significant geological activity, and liquid water, so its surface preserves a much longer record of impact craters.

41. What is the surface area of the Earth?

The Earth’s surface area is approximately 196,950,711 square miles (510,100,000 square kilometers).

42. What is the world’s largest lake?

The Caspian Sea, located between southeast Europe and western Asia, is the largest lake in the world by both surface area and volume.

43. In what area of the Earth do most earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur?

The majority of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur along the boundaries of the Earth’s tectonic plates. These plates, which make up the Earth’s lithosphere, are in constant motion, and their interactions at their edges are responsible for most of the planet’s seismic and volcanic activity. One of the most active zones is the Pacific Ring of Fire, which encircles the Pacific Ocean and is responsible for numerous earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, including those that affect Japan, Alaska, and South America.

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44. What is the internal temperature of the planet?

The Earth’s internal temperature increases with depth. On average, the temperature rises about 36 degrees Fahrenheit (20 degrees Celsius) per kilometer (0.62 miles) as you go deeper into the Earth. Near the Earth’s core, temperatures are estimated to reach a scorching 7,000 º F (3,870 º C).

45. What three countries lead the ranking of historic volcanic activity?

Indonesia, Japan, and the United States, in that order, have experienced the highest levels of volcanic activity throughout recorded history.

46. How many people worldwide are at risk from volcanoes?

In the year 2000, USGS scientists estimated that at least 500 million people worldwide live in areas at risk from volcanic hazards. That’s comparable to the entire global population in the early 17th century!

47. Which of the following stores the bulk of the world’s freshwater: lakes, rivers, or underground aquifers?

Underground aquifers are the largest reservoir of freshwater on Earth, holding a volume 30 times greater than that of all freshwater lakes combined and over 3,000 times the volume of water flowing in rivers at any given time. These aquifers are underground layers of rock and sediment that can hold significant amounts of groundwater.

48. Which earthquake was larger: the 1906 San Francisco earthquake or the 1964 Anchorage, Alaska earthquake?

The 1964 Anchorage earthquake, with a magnitude of 9.2, was significantly larger than the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, which had a magnitude of 7.8. The difference in magnitude means that the Anchorage earthquake released 125 times more energy than the San Francisco earthquake. The Anchorage earthquake was felt over an area of nearly 500,000 square miles (1,295,000 square kilometers).

49. Which earthquake was more destructive in terms of loss of human life and economic damage: the 1906 San Francisco earthquake or the 1964 Anchorage earthquake?

Despite its smaller magnitude, the 1906 San Francisco earthquake was far more destructive in terms of human life and economic impact. It resulted in 700 deaths, compared to 114 deaths from the Anchorage earthquake. The damage to property in San Francisco was also much greater, largely due to the devastating fires that swept through the city after the earthquake, fueled by damaged gas lines and hampered by a broken water system.

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50. Is the Earth’s core solid?

The Earth’s inner core, a mass of iron comparable in size to the Moon, is believed to be solid due to the immense pressure at the planet’s center. However, the outer core, surrounding the inner core, is liquid iron and nickel. While we can’t directly observe the Earth’s core, scientists study seismic waves and Earth’s magnetic field to understand its composition and behavior. Interestingly, recent evidence suggests that Mars’ core may also be liquid, based on studies of Martian tides.

51. Does the entire planet rotate at the same speed?

No, different parts of the Earth rotate at slightly different speeds. The solid inner core rotates faster than the liquid outer core. A 1996 study revealed that over the past century, this difference in rotation rates has caused the inner core to spin about a quarter turn faster than the rest of the planet. At this rate, the inner core completes a full rotation relative to the rest of Earth approximately every 400 years.

52. How many people have died from volcanoes in the past 500 years?

Volcanic eruptions have claimed the lives of at least 300,000 people in the past 500 years. Between 1980 and 1990 alone, volcanic activity was responsible for at least 26,000 deaths.

53. What percentage of Earth’s surface is volcanic rock?

Scientists estimate that over three-quarters of the Earth’s surface is composed of volcanic rock. This means that these rocks either originated from volcanic eruptions or formed from molten rock that cooled and solidified beneath the Earth’s surface before being uplifted. Most of Earth’s volcanic rock is found on the ocean floor.

54. Can an earthquake cause a tsunami?

Yes, underwater earthquakes can cause tsunamis. When an earthquake occurs beneath the ocean, it can displace a massive amount of water, creating a series of waves that travel outward in all directions. These waves, known as tsunamis, can travel across entire ocean basins at high speeds. While tsunamis may be relatively small in deep water, they can grow to enormous heights as they approach shallow coastal areas, causing catastrophic damage and flooding.

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55. Are all tsunamis giant waves when they hit the shoreline?

Contrary to popular depictions, not all tsunamis manifest as giant breaking waves. In many cases, a tsunami approaching the coast appears as a rapid and powerful surge of water, resembling an extremely high tide. However, this surge can still be incredibly destructive, inundating coastal areas and causing widespread damage.

Translator’s note: Some computer simulations have shown that an asteroid 1 km long impacting the Atlantic Ocean could generate a tsunami wave as high as a 40-story building.

56. What percentage of Earth’s land surface is desert?

Approximately one-third of Earth’s land surface is classified as desert, characterized by low precipitation and sparse vegetation.

57. What is the deepest ocean?

The deepest part of any ocean is the Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench, located in the Pacific Ocean south of Japan. It reaches a staggering depth of 36,198 feet (6.9 miles or 11 kilometers).

58. What have been the fastest winds recorded on the surface of the Earth?

The highest wind speed ever recorded on Earth was an astonishing 231 mph (372 km/h), measured on Mount Washington, New Hampshire, on April 12, 1934. However, during a tornado in Oklahoma in May 1999, researchers using Doppler radar measured wind speeds as high as 318 mph (513 km/h). In comparison, the average wind speed on Neptune is a mind-boggling 900 mph (1,448 km/h).

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59. How much freshwater is stored on Earth?

Earth holds over 2 million cubic miles (2,691,233 km3) of freshwater. About half of this freshwater is located within half a mile of the Earth’s surface. Mars is also believed to have significant water resources, but most of the water detected so far is locked up as ice in its polar caps. The total amount of water on Mars remains uncertain.

60. How old is the Earth?

Our planet is estimated to be about 4.5 billion years old, slightly younger than the Sun. Recent evidence suggests that Earth formed relatively quickly after the Sun’s formation, within about 10 million years. The Sun itself began to form around 4.6 billion years ago.

61. What is the largest desert in the world?

The Sahara Desert, spanning much of North Africa, is the largest hot desert in the world, covering an area more than 23 times larger than the Mojave Desert in Southern California. While some researchers consider the vast, icy expanse of Antarctica to be the largest desert on Earth, most rankings focus on traditional hot deserts.

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62. What planet has more moons: Mars or Earth?

Mars has two moons, Phobos and Deimos, while Earth has only one natural satellite, the Moon. The outer planets in our solar system have many more moons, with new ones still being discovered. These discoveries challenge our understanding of what constitutes a”moo” and may lead to a redefinition of the term in the future.

63. What is the deepest lake on Earth?

Lake Baikal, located in southern Siberia, is the deepest lake on Earth, reaching a depth of 5,712 feet (1.7 kilometers). It’s also one of the oldest lakes in the world, estimated to be around 20 million years old. Lake Baikal contains approximately 20% of the world’s unfrozen surface freshwater.

64. What is the origin of the word”volcan”?

The word”volcan” originates from Vulcan, the Roman god of fire.

65. How many minerals are known?

There are approximately 4,000 known minerals, but only about 200 are considered common or economically significant. Scientists discover and describe roughly 50 to 100 new minerals each year.

66. What is the total amount of water in the world?

The total volume of water on Earth is estimated to be around 326 million cubic miles (1,338 million cubic kilometers). One cubic mile of water is equivalent to over 1 billion gallons (3.78 billion liters).

Translator’s note: In the international metric system, this is equivalent to 1,338 million cubic kilometers.

67. What is the largest island in the world?

Greenland, with a surface area of 840,000 square miles (2,176,000 square kilometers), is the largest island in the world. While it’s often considered an island, some scientists classify Greenland as a continent because it’s composed of continental crust and is significantly larger than some landmasses considered continents. However, it’s still only about one-third the size of Australia.

68. Where are most of Earth’s volcanoes located?

The majority of Earth’s volcanoes are found along the mid-ocean ridges, vast underwater mountain chains that encircle the globe. These ridges mark the boundaries where tectonic plates diverge, and new oceanic crust is formed. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, for example, runs down the center of the Atlantic Ocean. While there are more volcanoes on land in terms of sheer numbers, the mid-ocean ridges host the most significant volcanic activity in terms of volume.

69. What volcano has been the deadliest?

The eruption of Mount Tambora in Indonesia in 1815 is considered the deadliest volcanic eruption in recorded history. While the eruption itself caused an estimated 10,000 to 12,000 immediate deaths, the subsequent environmental effects, including widespread crop failures, famine, and disease, led to an estimated 90,000 deaths in total.

70. Did the Earth and Moon form separately?

The prevailing scientific theory suggests that the Moon formed from a cataclysmic impact early in Earth’s history. According to this theory, a Mars-sized object collided with the young Earth, ejecting a massive amount of debris into orbit. This debris eventually coalesced to form the Moon. While the Earth was significantly affected by the impact, it remained largely intact.

71. How many lightning strikes occur on Earth per second?

On average, about 100 lightning strikes occur around the world every second. However, this is just an average. At any given moment, there are approximately 1,000 thunderstorms active worldwide, producing an estimated 6,000 lightning flashes per minute. Most of these lightning strikes occur within or between clouds, rather than striking the ground.

72. Are rivers alive?

While rivers aren’t alive in the traditional sense, they share some similarities with living organisms. They have a life cycle, with a beginning, a period of growth and development, and eventually, an end as they change course or dry up. Geologists and hydrologists study the evolution of rivers over time to understand how they shape the landscape and influence the environment.

73. Can asteroids create islands?

Scientists have long speculated that ancient asteroid impacts could have created volcanic hotspots, leading to the formation of islands. The impact of a large asteroid could generate enough heat to melt rock and create plumes of magma, which could then rise to the surface and form volcanic islands. While there’s no definitive proof of this theory, recent computer simulations suggest that the Hawaiian Islands may have formed through such a process.

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74. Is the state of Louisiana growing or shrinking?

Louisiana is losing land at an alarming rate, with an estimated 30 square miles (78 square kilometers) disappearing each year. This land loss is primarily due to coastal erosion, hurricanes, other natural processes, and human activities, including oil and gas extraction and the construction of levees. Another contributing factor is a process called subsidence, which is the sinking of land. Much of New Orleans, for example, sits below sea level, and parts of the French Quarter have sunk 2 feet (0.6 meters) in the past 60 years. While levees protect the city, experts warn that a major hurricane could overwhelm these defenses and flood large areas.

75. How much would sea levels rise if the Antarctic ice sheet melted?

The Antarctic ice sheet holds the vast majority of Earth’s ice and about 70% of its freshwater. If the entire ice sheet were to melt, global sea levels would rise by an estimated 220 feet (67 meters), which is roughly the height of a 20-story building. Scientists have observed an accelerating trend of ice melt in Antarctica, and the United Nations predicts that in a worst-case scenario, sea levels could rise by 3 feet (1 meter) by the year 2100.

76. Is ice a mineral?

Yes, ice meets the criteria to be classified as a mineral. It’s naturally occurring, inorganic, solid, has a defined chemical composition (H2O), and has a crystalline structure.

77. What is the softest mineral?

Talc is the softest mineral on the Mohs Hardness Scale, a scale used to measure the relative hardness of minerals. Talc is commonly used to make talcum powder.

78. What is the hardest mineral?

Diamond is the hardest known natural mineral, ranking 10 on the Mohs Hardness Scale. Its exceptional hardness makes it ideal for industrial applications, such as cutting and drilling, as well as for use in jewelry.

Translator’s note: It would have been easier to say diamond.

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79. How do fireworks produce colors?

The vibrant colors in fireworks are produced by adding various metal-containing compounds to the pyrotechnic mixture. For example, strontium salts produce a deep red color, copper compounds create blue hues, sodium compounds create yellow, iron filings and charcoal produce golden sparks, and aluminum powder is responsible for bright flashes and loud explosions.

80. Does Earth have the worst weather in the solar system?

While Earth experiences a wide range of weather phenomena, including hurricanes, tornadoes, and blizzards, other planets in our solar system have far more extreme weather patterns. Mars, for example, is known for its massive dust storms that can engulf the entire planet. Jupiter’s Great Red Spot is a giant storm system twice the size of Earth that has been raging for centuries. Venus has a runaway greenhouse effect, resulting in surface temperatures hot enough to melt lead. Pluto, while incredibly cold, may experience significant changes in its atmosphere and surface conditions as it orbits the Sun.

81. Where do the highest tides occur?

The Bay of Fundy, located between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, experiences the highest tides in the world. At Burntcoat Head, tides can reach an astonishing 38.4 feet (11.7 meters). The bay’s funnel-like shape amplifies the tidal range, creating a phenomenon known as a tidal bore, a wave that travels upstream as the tide rises.

82. Where is the world’s only equatorial glacier?

Mount Cotopaxi, a towering stratovolcano in the Andes Mountains of Ecuador, is home to the world’s only equatorial glacier. Despite its location on the equator, the glacier persists due to the mountain’s high elevation and the region’s unique climate.

Image Credit: http://www.igepn.edu.ec/

83. What is the largest lake in North America?

Lake Superior, bordered by the U.S. states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan and the Canadian province of Ontario, is the largest of the Great Lakes and the largest freshwater lake in the world by surface area.

84. What is the deadliest hurricane to hit the U.S.?

The deadliest hurricane in U.S. history struck Galveston, Texas, in 1900. This devastating Category 4 hurricane claimed the lives of over 6,000 people. The second deadliest hurricane, which hit Florida in 1928, resulted in nearly 1,900 deaths.

85. What is the longest mountain chain on Earth?

The Mid-Ocean Ridge system, a continuous chain of underwater mountains that stretches for over 40,000 miles (65,000 kilometers) around the globe, is the longest mountain range on Earth. It’s formed by the upwelling of magma at divergent plate boundaries, where new oceanic crust is created.

86. How much gold has been discovered in the world to date?

More than 193,000 metric tons (425 million pounds). If you stacked all together, could be a cube with a height equivalent to a seven-storey building that would remind one of Donald Trump’s buildings. But first we should find all the rings that fell down drains.

87. What are the two largest gold producing?

South Africa produces 5,300 metric tons per year and the 3200 United States TM

88. What North American plant can live for thousands of years?

Creosote bushes that grow in the deserts of Mojave, Sonora and Chihuahua, have shown, after radiocarbon dating, have lived since the birth of Christ. According to scientists, some of these plants can take 10,000 years in the world. Too bad they can not speak!

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89. How much water is spent each day on average in the world?

Approximately 400,000 million gallons (1.5 billion liters).

Translator’s note: This volume amounts to more than 1 million Olympic swimming pools

90. Is Saturn the only ringed planet?

Saturn’s ring is more obvious, but Jupiter and Neptune also have faint rings systems (like Uranus, as readers have reminded me). Even the Earth may have once been a ringed planet, as a result of oblique impact of a space rock.

Translator’s note: Some computer simulations showed that an asteroid the necessary obliquity could have hit and bounced off the Earth 35.5 million years ago. This event may have started on Earth rocks forming a ring of debris around our planet.

91. What is the highest continent, dry and cool the Earth?

That would be Antarctica.

92. How deep occur most earthquakes?

Most occur within 50 miles (80 kilometers) from Earth’s surface. Shallow earthquakes have more potential to cause harm, but the level of destruction of an earthquake depends to a large extent on the conditions of soil and rock as well as construction methods.

93. Where are the oldest rocks on Earth?

Due to the continuing regeneration of the ocean floor as the continental plates move across the surface of the Earth, the oldest rocks of the seabed are less than 300 million years. In contrast, the oldest continental rocks are 4,500 million years.

94. What percentage of the world’s freshwater is stored as ice?

Approximately 70 percent. If we replace it completely, we would need to muster the total rainwater precipitated over the planet for 60 years, then we would have to devise a way for freezing.

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95. What is the largest mountain lake in North America?

Lake Tahoe on the border between California and Nevada, covers an area of 105,000 acres and contains 39 billion gallons (147.6 billion liters) and has a depth of nearly 1,600 feet (488 meters).

96. Has there always been continents?

Not as we know them today. Many scientists believe that Earth began as one big continent, drier than a raisin. The comets brought water, still wandering, and oceans developed. Much more recently, all the world’s land masses huddled juntitas forming a supercontinent called Pangea. 225 million years ago, Pangea began to break down, eventually fragmenting into the continents as we know them today.

Translator’s note: The continents are still moving, and you may end up together again in a Pangea Ultima.

97. How much volcanic ash can fall in one day?

I can only give an example. During the period (9 hours) of increased activity of Mount St. Helens eruption, which occurred on 18 May 1980, fell more than 540 million tons of ash over an area of over 22,000 square miles (56,980 square kilometers ). It was the most destructive volcanic eruption which is recorded in the United States. 57 people died because of the eruption including USGS scientist Dr. David Johnston, who was on an inspection post within 5 miles (8 kilometers) from the volcano. It is estimated that the damage caused by the eruption amounted to 1.000 billion, due not only to what fell from the sky, but landslides and floods associated mud.

98. What is feldspar?

A more correct question would be Who (apart from a geologist) feldspar can love? This is usually the most common mineral in the earth’s surface. But I find nothing funny about this stuff that has something of interest to most of us.

99. With compass in hand What are the municipalities bordering the United States?

This question has some trick as three or even four, of the answers may catch the unwary reader. The westernmost point is the aptly named West Point Amatignak Island, Alaska. The northernmost is also in Alaska and is called Point Barrow. The southernmost is the southern tip of the island of Hawaii. The easternmost – come on, adivínelo! – Is Pochnoi Point, Semisopochnoi, including Alaska. Huh? Take a world map. The point of the Aleutian Islands falls across the longitudinal line of 180 degrees (the line of daylight saving time) which places Pochnoi Point by little, but officially, in the Eastern Hemisphere.

100. If we fit the Earth, Moon and Mars inside each other like Russian dolls how should we order them?

Mars would be introduced into the Earth and the Moon would fit carefully into the interior of Mars. The Earth has almost twice the size of Mars, which in turn is about twice as large as the moon.

101. Will you be here on Earth forever?

Astronomers know that within a few billion years the Sun will swell so as to envelop the Earth. If you still walk around here, we probably fry and the planet will evaporate. However, there is the possibility that the changing solar mass causes the Earth moves in its orbit to a more distant and pleasant. Some calculations show that would be mathematically possible for humans, using engineering, achieving this movement of the earth before it was too late.