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Aligarh Movement


After 1857, the Muslims emerged as a backward nation; they were illiterate and hopelessly ignorant in every walk of life. Nevertheless, they were economically, politically, socially and to be more exact religiously made the subject of ruthless punishment. In such conditions, Sir Syed Ahmad Khan came forward and tried to help the Muslims come out from such miserable conditions. He guided the Muslims towards the right path and attempted to draw out the Muslims from such helpless condition.

Objectives of Aligarh Movement:

The main focus of the Aligarh movement was:

Loyalty to British Government.

Modern western education for the Muslims to compete with Hindus. To keep away the Muslims from politics.

Scientific Society at Ghazipur:

In 1864, Sir Syed Ahmad Khan laid the foundation of a scientific society at Ghazipur. The purpose of this society was to translate the English books into Urdu language.

Mohammedan Educational Conference:

In 1886, Sir Syed set up an organization which is known as Mohammedan Educational Conference, which presented a twelve point program in western and religious education in English and other languages. It aim was to convey the message of education to the Muslim masses.


Sir Syed, although, was the first Muslim member of Central Legislative Council, but he advised the Muslims to remain apart from politics unless and until they would get education. He believed that the cure of Muslim problems is only education and unless and until Muslims get education.


Means of Two-Nation Theory:

Two Nation Theory means that Muslims of South Asia believe that Islam and Hinduism are not only two religions but also two distinct cultures with no similarities. Their habits, architecture, music and script are all different. Even the languages they speak and the dresses they wear are entirely different. That is why; Muslims of India had demanded a separate homeland where Muslims could get their religious satisfaction.

Basis of Nationhood:

The Muslims believed that the basis of their nationhood neither territorial nor ethnic, linguistic; rather they are a nation because they belong to the same faith, Islam.

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan – The Pioneer of Two-Nation Theory:

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan is the one, who used the word “Two Nation” for Hindus and Muslims very first, after he saw hatred of Hindus and congress for the Muslims.

Two-Nation Theory in the Views of Quaid-e-Azam:

Quaid-e-Azam declared:

“Muslims are not a minority; they are one nation by every definition of the word nation. By all canons of international law we are a nation.”


The Muslims apprehended that they would lose their identity if they remained a part of Hindu society. They also came to realize the above-mentioned differences between them and the Hindus and hence demanded separate electorate on the ground that they were different nation from Hindus.




The word ideology is composed of two Greek words; “Idea” and “Logos”. The term ideology means science of idea. George Lewis says:

“Ideology is a plane or program which is based upon philosophy.”

Essentials of Ideology of Pakistan:

Ideology of Pakistan is based upon five essentials:

  • Islam:

Pakistan came into being based on Islam. Muslims had demand an independent state to be carved out from Hindu domination. Quaid-e-Azam said:

“We do not demand Pakistan simply to have a piece of land but we want a laboratory where we could experiment on Islamic principles.”

  • Two-Nation Theory

Two-nation theory was the basis of the struggle for creation of Pakistan. It implies that Muslims of the sub-continent were a nation quite distinct and

Prepared & Compiled by

M. Haris Basim


separate from Hindu’s. Quaid-e-Azam said:

“The Hindu and the Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs and literature. They neither intermarry nor interline together, and indeed they belong to two different civilizations.”

  • Territorial Land:

A piece of land was necessary for the existence and promotions of

Islamic ideology as Quaid-e-Azam said:

“We are one nation and the nation does not survive in the air. It requires an independent and to settle.”

  • Democratic System:

All the social, economical, political and cultural affairs are operated based on Islamic democracy. At the time of establishment of Pakistan, referendum was held in all the Majority provinces to take their consent to be included in Pakistan.

  • Urdu Language:

In 1867 some Hindu’s started a movement in Banaras, in which they demanded replacement of Urdu with Hindi, and the Persian script with Deva Nagri (Hindi) script. The reason for opposing Urdu was that the language was written in Persian script, which was similar to the Arabic script and Arabic, was the language of Quran, the holy book of Muslims. Molvi Abdul Haque said:

“Urdu is the first brick in the foundation of Pakistan”

Ideology of Pakistan and Allama Iqbal:

Allama Muhammad Iqbal, the dreamer of Pakistan, said:

“I would like to see the Punjab, N.W.F.P. (North West Frontier Provinces), Sindh and Baluchistan amalgamated into a single state self-government within the British Empire or without the British Empire.”

The Allahabad address of Allama Iqbal carries great importance and significance in the freedom struggle of the Muslims of India.

Ideology of Pakistan in the Views of Quaid-e-Azam:

Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the great leader of Muslims of sub-continent gave practical shape to the ideology given by Allama Iqbal. At the historic session of the Muslim league at Lahore, he said:

“Muslims are not a minority. They are one nation by every definition of the word ‘nation’. We are a nation with our won culture and civilization, language and literature, art and architecture, sense of values, we have own distinctive outlook on life & of life.”


The fundamental concept of ideology of Pakistan is that Muslims are a separate nation having their own culture, literature, religion and way of life. They cannot be merged in any other nation. They should be able to develop



United Bengal’s area covered 189,000 sq. miles with 80 million populations. Muslim Separatism in India, that the partition was imperative even if Curzon had not initiated it. A Lt. Governor had problems in looking after the eastern areas. Mainly Muslim suffered because of the rotten administration by the British. Before 1905, many proposals of partition of Bengal had been under consideration but Lord Curzon decided to practice this administrative scheme. The Bengal was distributed into two distinct parts namely East Bengal and West Bengal.

  1. East Bengal:

East Bengal became incidentally a Muslim majority province having 13000000 out of 31000000.

  1. West Bengal:

West Bengal was a Hindu majority province.

Muslims’ Reaction:

Muslims were very happy on the partition as this had enabled them to promote their life conditions. It was rightly an opportunity for compensation. The Muslim community supported it strongly.

Hindus’ Rejection:

On the other hand, Hindus retaliated furiously saying it the division of motherland. The Congress joined the anti-partition movement. They started widespread agitation, violence and boycott of foreign goods. The main reason of Hindu protest was that they had loosened grip over the eastern parts.

Annulment of the Partition:

The British government revoked the partition to avoid trouble on 12

December 1911. The Muslims were disappointed by the government response to the violent strategy of protests adopted by the Hindus.



Lucknow Pact refers to an agreement reached between the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League at the joint session of both the parties, held in Lucknow, in the year 1916.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah:

Muhammad Ali Jinnah, then a member of the Congress as well as the League, made both the parties reaches an agreement to pressure the British government to adopt a more liberal approach to India and give Indians more authority to run their country. Jinnah himself was the mastermind and architect of this pact.

Due to the reconciliation brought about by Jinnah between the Congress and the League, the Nightingale of India, Sarojini Naidu, gave him the title of “the Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity”.

Muslim League and Congress:

As a result of the hard work of Mr. Jinnah and Mahajan from congress, both the Muslim League and the Congress met for their annual sessions at Bombay in December 1915. The principal leaders of the two political parties assembled at one place for the first time in the history of these organizations. The speeches made from the platform of the two groups were similar in tone and theme.

Confirmation of agreement:

The agreement was confirmed by the annual sessions of the Congress and the League in their annual sessions held at Lucknow on December 29 and December 31, 1916 respectively. Sarojini Naidu gave Jinnah, the chief architect of the Lucknow Pact, the title of “the Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity”.

Main Features:

Main features of the pact are as under:

  1. There shall be self-government in India.
  1. The same method should be adopted for the Executive Councils of Governors.
  2. The India Council must be abolished.
  1. The salaries of the Secretary of State for Indian Affairs should be paid by the British government and not from Indian funds.
  1. The executive should be separated from the judiciary.
  2. The number of Muslims in the provincial legislatures should be laid down province by province.
  1. Muslims should be given 1/3 representation in Central Govt.
  1. There should be separate electorates for all communities until they ask for joint electorate.
  2. System of weight-age should be adopted.

10. Term of Legislative Council should be 5 years.

The Khilafat Movement


The Khilafat movement was a religio-political movement launched by the Muslims of British India for the retention of the Ottoman Caliphate and for not handing over the control of Muslim holy places to non-Muslims.

Turkey sided with Germany in World War 1. As it began to lose the war, concerns were expressed in India about the future of Turkey. It was a peak period from 1919 to 1922 casting demonstrations, boycott, and other pressure by the two major communities, the Hindus and the Muslims. Being brothers, the Indian Muslims realized their religious duty to help the Muslim country. It was the extra territorial attachments based on Islam. Another factor same to the first was that the Indian Muslims considered Ottoman Caliphate a symbol of unity of the Muslim world as Ummah.


  1. Ottoman Khilafat should be kept intact.
  2. Territorial solidarity of Turkey be preserved.
  3. Control of holy the places should not be given to non-Muslims.

Protests in India:

All India Khilafat Committee was formed at Bombay in July 1919. The first Khilafat Conference at Delhi in November 1919 was arranged in which the Congress leaders like Gandhi and Nehru participated. In this way, the major political parties joined hands to assault the injustice with the Muslim community. These steps were announced:

No participation in victory celebrations. Boycott of British goods

Non Cooperation with the Government

The second Khilafat Conference (Amritsar) was held in Dec. 1919.

Maulana Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali joined the session after being released from prison. In Jan. 1920, M. A. Ansari led a delegation to Viceroy while Maulana M. A. Jauhar to Europe. The Khilafat Committee decided to start non-cooperation in collaboration with the Congress in May 1920.


It was re-affirmation of the reality that religion is a mobilizing force and especially Islam has mobilization capacity to organize masses.

It was the movement launched on the basis of extra-territorialism. Later, no such movement but Pan-Islamic sentiments continued.

It resulted in the sufferings of the Muslims. Hindu-Muslim unity proved short-lived.

Reactivation of the Muslim League and other Muslim organizations to

restart their activities as a separate nation was the great outcome.



The main objective was to constitute proposals for the Indian Constitution. The Congress called All Parties Conference that appointed a 10-member committee in May 1928 under the Chairmanship of Motilal Nehru and Secretary ship of Jawaharlal Nehru.

Main points of the report:

Recommendations that threatened Muslim interests are:

  1. No Separate electorate.
  2. No One-third seats for Muslims in Central Assembly.
  3. No reservation of seats for Muslims in Punjab and Bengal. In Hindu-majority Provinces, the Muslims may be given seats according to population.
  4. Sind to be made a province if it can bear its expenses. Balochistan, NWFP were accepted to be given constitutional status on certain conditions.

Jinnah’s Answer:

Quaid-i-Azam tried to get amendments in the Report in the All Parties Conference in Calcutta but did not succeed. This is the very moment when Jinnah remarked, “It is parting of the ways.” He presented the 14 points as a Muslim leader.



The three Round Table Conferences of 1930–32 were a series of conferences organized by the British Government to discuss constitutional reforms in India. They were conducted as per the recommendation by the report submitted by the Simon Commission in May 1930. However, there were significant disagreements between the Indian and the British political parties that the Conferences would not resolve.

First Session of the Conference: (1930)

In the first session, a number of prominent Muslims like M. A. Jinnah, Sir Shafi, Maulana M. A. Jauhar, Zafarullah Khan participated. They emphasized federalism, self government, safeguards for minorities, separate electorate, preferential representation in central legislature, and secure majorities in Punjab and Bengal.

Second Conference: (1931)

Maulana M. A. Jauhar had died after the first conference. Iqbal, Jinnah and others participated in the second conference. Gandhi represented the Congress. The key issues of the session were ‘Federation’ and ‘Minorities.’

3rd Roundtable Conference: (1932)

The main issues had been discussed in the first two conferences and now

the rest of them were to be discussed. It was poorly attended conference. Quaid did not participate despite living in London. Gandhi did not attend as he had been detained.

The conference brought no change in party positions and widened Hindu-Muslim gulf.

PAKISTAN Resolution


Pakistan Resolution was the turning point in the history of Pakistan. It provides a way to the Muslims, leading to the destination of a complete independence.

The Pakistan Resolution:

In 1940, the annual session of Muslim League was held at Lahore in Minto Park (Iqbal Park) under the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam and a resolution was passed on 23 March 1940. The Resolution was moved by Bengal Chief Minister Maulvi Fazlul Haq and seconded by Chaudry Khaliq-uz-Zaman. It stated that:

“The areas, in which Muslims are numerically in majority as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of India, should be grouped to constitute independent states in which the constituent units shall be autonomous and sovereign. Effective and mandatory safeguards should be specifically provided in the constitution for minorities for the protection of their religion, cultural, economic, political, administrative and other rights.”

Muslims Acceptance and Hindus Rejection:

The Muslims who had assembled the meeting plan in a large number unanimously accepted the Resolution. The Hindu readers and newspaper raise an outcry after the Resolution. They refused it and referred to the partition as “Vivisection of Motherland”.

Gandhi said that:

“Dividing India was like dividing a cow.”

Quaid-e-Azam warned the Hindus that:

“If the Hindus tried to get the whole of India they would lose the whole, but if they gave one-third to the Muslims they would get two-thirds.”


Pakistan Resolution was a demand for the protection and safeguard of the national identity of the Muslims. The Resolution infused high spirits among the Muslims who were now determined to fight to the last minute for the accomplishment of Pakistan.

Cripps Mission (1942)


British Government sent a mission to India in 1942 under Sir Stafford Cripps, the Lord Privy Seal, in order to achieve Hindu-Muslim consensus on some constitutional arrangement and to convince the Indians to postpone their struggle till the end of the Second World War.

Cripps arrived in Delhi on March 22, 1942 and had series of meetings with the leading Indian politicians including Jawaharlal Nehru, Abul Kalam Azad, Quaid-i-Azam, Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan, A. K. Fazlul Haq, Dr. Ambedkar, V.D. Savarkar and Tej Bhadur Sappru etc.

Proposals of Cripps Mission:

In the meetings Cripps tried to plead his case before these political leaders and tried to convince them to accept his following proposals:

  1. During the course of the war, the British would retain their hold on India. Once the war finished, India would be granted dominion status with complete external and internal autonomy. It would however, be associated with the United Kingdom and other Dominions by a common allegiance to the Crown.
  2. At the end of the war, a Constituent Assembly would be set up with the power to frame the future constitution of India. The members of the assembly were to be elected on the basis of proportional representation by the provincial assemblies. Princely States would also be given representation in the Constituent Assembly.
  3. The provinces not agreeing to the new constitution would have the right to keep itself out of the proposed Union. Such provinces would also be entitled to create their own separate Union. The British government would also invite them to join the commonwealth.
  4. During the war an interim government comprising of different parties of India would be constituted. However, defence and external affairs would be the sole responsibility of the viceroy.

Reaction of Muslim League:

Quaid-i-Azam considered these proposals as “unsatisfactory” and was of the view that the acceptance of the Cripps proposals would “take the Muslims to the gallows.


Actually Quaid-i-Azam and other Muslim League leaders were convinced that Cripps was a traditional supporter of Congress and thus could not present an objective solution to the problem. On the arrival of Cripps, Quaid-i-Azam made it clear that he was a friend of Congress and would only support the Congress’ interests

Wavell Plan (1945)


In October 1943 the British Government decided to replace Lord Linlithgow with Lord Wavell as the Viceroy of India. Right after assuming charge as Viceroy, Wavell’s most important task was to present a formula for the solution of the Indian problem which was acceptable for both the Congress and the Muslim League. After doing his basic homework, a broadcast speech delivered by Wavell from Delhi. This plan is commonly known as Wavell Plan.

Proposals of Wavell’s Plan:

Wavell’s plan presented the following proposals:

  1. If all the Indian political parties would help the British in the war then the British Government would introduce Constitutional Reforms in India after the war.
  2. Viceroy’s Executive Council would be immediately reconstituted and the number of its members would be increased.
  3. In that Council there would be equal representation of high class Hindus and the Muslims.
  4. Other minorities including low-caste Hindus, Shudders and Sikhs would be given representation in the Council.
  5. All the members of the Council, except the Viceroy and the Commander-in-Chief would be Indians.
  6. An Indian would be appointed as the member of Foreign Affairs in the Council. However, a British Commissioner would be appointed to look after the matters relating to the trade.
  7. Defence of India was to be in the hands of a British authority till Power was transferred to the Indian hands
  8. Viceroy would convene a meeting of the Indian politician including the leaders of Congress and the Muslim League so that they could nominate the names of the members of the new Council.
  9. If this plan is approved for the Central Government then same type of popular ministries comprising of the political leaders would be formed in all the provinces.
  10. None of the changes suggested will in any way prejudice or prejudge the essential form of the future permanent Constitution of India.

Simla Conference (1945)


Lord Wavell succeeded Lord Linlithgow as Viceroy of India in 1943. When he took over as Viceroy, the tide of the Second World War was turning in favour of the allies. Lord Wavell declared that British Government wanted to see India as an independent and prosperous country.

Simla Conference:

When the war ended in August 1945, Viceroy Lord Wavell decided to

hold a political conference to which he invited Muslim League and Congress representatives. The conference began in Simla on June 24, 1945 and lasted till July 14, 1945.

Representatives of Congress & AIML:

Muslim League was represented by Quaid-i-Azam, Liaquat Ali Khan, Khwaja Nazim-ud-din, Ghulam Hussain Hidayat Ullah, Sir Muhammad Asad Ullah and Hussain Imam. The Congress was represented by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Khizar Hayat Tiwana, Dr. Khan Sahib and some other leaders.

Point of Dispute:

There was a deadlock over the Muslim League’s demand that all five Muslim members of the Executive Council should be the nominees of the Muslim League. The Viceroy was of the opinion that four members should be taken from the Muslim League while the fifth member should be a Punjabi Muslim who did not belong to the Muslim League.

Failure of Conference:

The Congress denied Muslim League’s claim of being the sole representative of the Indian Muslims. Quaid-i-Azam took a strong stand on these two issues and the conference failed to achieve anything and finally ended on 14th July, 1945.

Ideology of Pakistan in the light of QUAID-E-AZAM’s Sayings


Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the great leader of Muslims of Sub Continent gave practical shape to the ideology given by Allama Iqbal. He had a strong believe in Hindu Muslim unity and was of the opinion that both Hindus and Muslims should launch joint efforts to get rid of British rule.

After joining Muslim league in 1913, he continued with his efforts to bring about Hindu-Muslim unity but he was greatly disappointed to see the prejudicial attitude of the Congress and Hindus towards the Muslims. Following are some extracts from the speeches and statements which he delivered from time to time for explaining the ideology of Pakistan.

Separate Constitution:

Quaid-e-Azam believed that Congress and Hindus would never recognize the rights of Muslims. He declared while representing the Muslims in the Second Round Table Conference in 1913:

“The Hindu Muslim dispute must be settled before the enforcements of any system or constitution. Until you do not give guarantee for the safeguard of the Muslim interests, until you do not win their (Muslims) co-operations, any constitution you enforce shall not pas for even 24 hours.”

Two-Nation Theory:

Quiad-e-Azam was a firm advocate of two nation theory which became the ideological basis Pakistan. He considered the Muslims as a separate nation. He said:

“Pakistan was created the day the first Indian National entered the field of Islam”.

He defined the two nation theory as:

“The Muslims are a nation by every right to establish their separate homeland. They can adopt any means to promote and protect their economic social, political and cultural interests.”

Separate Nation:

At the historic session of the Muslim League at Lahore, he said:

“The Muslims are not a minority. They are a nation by any definition. By all canons of International law we are a nation”.

In his presidential address at the annual session of Muslim League at

Lahore in 1940, he said:

“India is neither a nation nor a country. It is a Sub Continent of nationalities. Hindus and Muslims are the two major nations. The Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religions, Philosophies, social customs and literature. They neither intermarry nor interdine and they belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their aspects on life and of are different. It is quite clear that Hindus and Muslims derive their inspiration from different sources of history.”

Separate ways of life:

While addressing the students of Muslim University, he said:

“Hindus and Muslims through living in the same town and villages had never been blended into one nation. They were always two separate entities.”


Quaid-e-Azam emphasized on the Islamic ideology as being the basis of the struggle for Pakistan because he believed that only Islam was the unifying force of the Muslim Millat. He said:

“What relationships knits the Muslims into one hole, which is the formidable rock on which the Muslim edifice has been erected, which is the sheet anchor providing base to the Muslim Millat, the relationship, the sheet anchor and the rock is Holy Quran.”

Islamic System:

In 1946, Quaid-e-Azam declared:

“We do not demand Pakistan simply to have a piece of land but we want a Laboratory where we could experiment on Islamic principles.”

Muslims Ideology:

In his message to the frontier Muslim student Federation, he said: “Pakistan only means freedom and independence but Muslims Ideology, which has to be preserved which has come to us as a precious gift and treasure and which we hope, others will share with us.”


The above sayings and statements largely prove that Quaid-e-Azam wanted to establish an Islamic system as a code of life because he believed that it was the sole objective of the Pakistan Movement.

Jinnah’s Fourteen Points – 1929:

1. Federal System:

The form of the future constitution should be federal with the residuary

powers rested in the provinces.

2. Provincial Autonomy:

A uniform measure of autonomy shall be granted to all provinces.

3. Representation of Minorities in Legislature:

All legislative in the country and other elected bodies shall be constituted on the definite principles of adequate and effective representation of minorities in every province without reducing the majority in any province to a minority or even equality.

4. Number of Muslim Representative:

In the central legislative, Muslims representative shall be not less than one-third.

5. Separate Electorates:

Representative of communal groups shall continue to be by means of separate electorates as at present provided it shall be open to any community, at any time to abandon its separate electorate in favour of joint electorate.

6. Muslim Majority Provinces:

Any territorial re-distribution at any time that might be necessary in any way, shall not affect the Muslim majority in Punjab, Bengal and N.W.F.P.

7. Religious Liberty:

Full religious Liberty, liberty of belief, worship and observance, association and education shall be guaranteed to all the communication.

8. Three-Fourth Representation:

No bill or resolution shall be passed in any legislative or any other elected body if three-fourths of the members of any community in that particular body oppose such a bill.

9. Separation of Sind:

Sind should be separated from Bombay Presidency.

  1. Reforms in N.W.F.P and Baluchistan:

Reforms should be introduced in the North-West Frontier Province and Baluchistan on the same footing as in other provinces.

  1. Shares of Muslims in Services:

Muslims should be given adequate share along with other Indians in the services of State.

  1. Protection for Muslims’ culture and Language:

The constitution should embody adequate safeguard for the protection of

Muslim culture, language, religion and civilization.

  1. One-Third Muslim Ministries:

Form no cabinet, either central or provincial without being a proportion of at least one-third Muslim Ministers.

  1. Change in Constitution:

No change shall be made in the constitution of state except with the concurrence of State constituting the Indian Federation.



The British Labour government sent a mission to formulate some acceptable constitutional settlement. Sir Pethick Lawrence, Stafford Cripps and A. V. Alexander deliberated with the governors, members of the Executive Council and then the Indian political leaders on different proposals. Maulana Azad as the president of the Congress stressed to establish federal government and Jinnah repeated the Two Nation Theory as a universal reality. On April 19, 1946, all the newly elected Muslim members pledged in the Delhi Convention to shatter the Hindu dream of united India. In the second Simla Conference (May 15, 1946) the ML wished two legislative assemblies while anti-ML political parties favoured strong centre.

Recommendations of the Cabinet Mission:

Indian Union comprising British India and princely states.

  1. Centre to deal with foreign affairs, defence, communication, taxation.
  2. Rest of the subjects with provinces.
  3. There will be a legislature and executive comprising representatives of provinces and states.
  4. No legislation on communal affairs if the majority of the two communities are not present and voting in favour.
  5. Provinces will be divided into three groups:
  6. Hindu majority provinces e.g. UP, CP, Madras, Bombay, Bihar, Orissa.
    1. Muslim majority provinces in NW e.g. Punjab, NWFP, Balochistan and Sindh
  7. Bengal and Assam.
  8. Each group could decide what to be managed jointly and what should be managed by provinces themselves. They could decide if the group desired to frame constitution.
  9. After ten years, a province by a vote of its legislature could ask for review of relationship with the Union. It implied that a group or province could quit the Indian Union.
  10. CA (Constituent Assembly) to be elected by the elected members of the provincial assemblies. Seats to be divided into three categories: General, Muslim, and Sikh on the basis of population in provinces.
  11. Interim Government to be set up.

Muslim League’s Reaction:

The Muslim League reiterated its demand for Pakistan. It accepted the plan for two reasons:

  1. Basis and foundation of Pakistan was in the compulsory grouping and
  2. The right to ask for review

Congress’ Reaction:

The Congress was critical of groupings and right to ask for review of constitutional relationship. It agreed to contest elections for the CA but declined to be bound by the proposals of the Cabinet Plan. The nonsensical stand of the Congress was that they were “free to make any change in the proposal.” Definitely the ML was alarmed by the Congress’ intentions.



Lord mount-batten was appointed as the viceroy of India instead of Lord Wavell. He was arrived India on March 22, 1947. On 3 June 1947, he announced his plan, which is called “3rd June Plan”.

Features of the Plan:

The salient features of 3rd June plan were:

The British will not impose a constitution but the Constituent Assembly will frame a constitution.

The constitution will not be imposed on the areas that do not accept it. Opinion will be sought from them if they want to set up a separate CA (Constituent Assembly).

Punjab & Bengal Assemblies will meet in two parts, members from Muslim majority areas and other districts separately to decide if the province be partitioned.

If any part decides for partition, each group will decide which CA they wish to join.

Sind Assembly will decide about joining either side. Referendum in NWFP.

Balochistan: appropriate method.

Boundary Commission for Punjab and Bengal.

Princely states to decide for them keeping in view their geographical contiguity.

The Indian Independence Act 1947


The British Government introduced the Indian Inde-pendence Bill in Parliament on July 4, 1947 and the Indian Independence Act was enacted after a fortnight on July 18. The Act made no reference to any new Constitution for India.

The Act enabled the representatives of India and Pakistan to frame their own Constitutions and to provide for the “exceedingly difficult period of transition”. In another sense, the Act was a mere formal reflection of the promises made under the Mountbatten Plan.

Important points of the Act:

Important points of Indian Independence Act of 1947 as under:

Two Independent dominions (India and Pakistan) were to be set up on 15 August, 1947.

Pakistan will comprise of Sindh, Baluchistan, N.W.F.P., West Punjab and East Bengal.

The legislatures of each dominion shall have full power to make laws for that dominion (legislative supremacy).

Each Dominion was empowered to modify this Act, through its Governor-General up to March 31, 1948 and thereafter by its Constituent Assembly.

The King’s Power to veto laws or to reserve them for His Majesty’s pleasure was given up and each new Governor-General was given the right to assent in His Majesty’s name to any Bill passed by the Dominion Legislature of his country.

Suzerainty and paramountcy of the British Crown over the Indian States was terminated through the Act with all treaties, agreements, etc., between the two to lapse on August 15.

The existing arrangements between the States and the Government of India were to continue pending detailed negotiations between these states and the new Dominions.

The office of the Secretary of State for India was abolished. The Secretary for Commonwealth Affairs was to take on his work.

The words “Emperor of India” and “India Imperator” were to be dropped from the Royal-style and titles.

Radcliff’s Award


The Indian Independence Act, 1947, provided among the provisions the appointment of two Boundary Commissions for the division of Punjab and Bengal between Pakistan and India. Each boundary commission was to consist of an equal number of representatives of India and Pakistan and of one or more impartial members.

Chairman of boundary commissions:

Accordingly, Sir Cyril Radcliff was appointed as the chairman of both boundary commissions who would have the poor to make the Award.

Members of the Punjab Boundary Commission:

The members of the Punjab Boundary Commission were:

1) Din Mohammad (on behalf of Pakistan)

  1. Mohammad Munir (on behalf of Pakistan)
  1. Mehar Chand Mahajan (on behalf of India)
  2. Tej Singh (on behalf of India)

Members of the Bengal Boundary Commission:

The members of the Bengal Boundary Commission were:

  1. Abu Saleh Mohammad Akram (on behalf of Pakistan)
  2. S.A. Rahman (on behalf of Pakistan)
  3. C.C.Biswas (on behalf of India)
  4. B.K.Mukherjee (on behalf of India) All of them were High Court Judges.


The members of the commission had acute differences of opinion regarding the setting up of the boundaries. It was then mutually agreed that in case of conflict the chairman should give his verdict. Here again the Muslim League was made to play a losers game. Radcliff gave his verdict in favor of India and against the interest of Pakistan. In consultation with Mountbatten the partial arbitrator sliced away further areas from Pakistan and handed them over to the Hindus. As for an illustration, in Gurdaspur District of Punjab, the distribution of population was as follows (1941 Census Report):

Hindus 21.2% Sikhs 19.2%

Muslims 51.1%

Indian Christians 4.4%

Scheduled Castes (Non-Hindus) 4.0%

Quaid-e-Azam’s Reaction:

Mr. Jinnah felt so pained that he said:

“We have been the victims of a deep-laid and well-planned conspiracy, executed with utter disregard of the elementary principles of honesty, chivalry and honor.”


Between 1940 & 1947


The era from 1940 to 1947 is the era of rapid changes. In the past, the demand of Pakistan was not raised clearly. It was due to Muslim achievements in this period that now we are living in a sovereign and independent state. The political events from Pakistan Resolution to the establishment of Pakistan are summarized under:

1) Pakistan Resolution 1940:

The attitude of the Hindus made it clear that the Hindus and the Muslims were two separate nations. On March 23, at the annual session of Muslim League at Lahore, the famous resolution, commonly known as the Pakistan Resolution was passed. Maulvi Fazlul Haq presented it. Quiad-e-Azam said in his address:

“By all means Muslims are one nation and they needing a separate homeland where they could live their spiritual, cultural, economical, social and political lives independently.”

2) Cripps Mission 1942:

Sir Stafford Cripps was sent by the British Government to India, to discuss with Indian leaders, the future Indian Constitutions. Both the Congress and the League rejected his proposal. The Congress Characterized them us “a post-dated cheque on a failing bank”. Jinnah said that if these were accepted Muslims would become a minority in their majority provinces as well.

3) Quit India Movement 1942:

Congress initiated it against British, it was “open rebellion” due to which many people were killed League raised a slogan of “Divide and Quite India”.

  1. Gandhi Jinnah Talks 1944:

Gandhi held talks with Jinnah to discuss about the future of India, but no fruitful results came out of it because Gandhi did not accept Muslims as a separate nation.

“The wall between Jinnah and Gandhi was the Two Nation Theory.”

5) Lord Wavell’s Plan 1945:

In May 1945, Lord Wavell, the viceroy of India, went to London and

talked about his ideas about the future of India with the British administration. The discussion resulted in the formulation of an action plan that was made public in June 1945. This plan is known as “Wavell Plan”.

6) Simla Conference 1945:

Lord Wavell called a conference at Simla on 25 June 1945. The conference failed to achieve any purpose due to one-sided attitude of Lord Wavell. In this conference, Quiad-e-Azam made it clear that the Muslim League can represent Muslim of India.

General Elections 1945-46:

Elections for the central and provincial assemblies were held in 1945-1946 in which Muslim League won 30 seats of central legislative meant for Muslims and 430 seats out of 495 in the provincial legislative. Quiad-e-Azam said on this occasion:

“I have no doubt now in the achievement of Pakistan. The Muslims of India told the world what they want .No power of world can topple the opinion of 10 crore Muslims of India.”

7) Cabinet Mission 1946:

Cabinet Mission visited India in 1946 and submitted its recommendations to the Britishers. As a result, Interim Government was formed but Congress and league could not co-operate amongst them.

8) Delhi Convention 1946:

Quaid-e-Azam called a convention of all Muslims League members at Delhi. At the convention, every member took the pledge to under go any danger for the attainment of national goal of Pakistan.

9) 3rd June Plan 1947:

Lord Mount Batten prepared the plan for transference of power according to the wish of people. He emphasized on the partition of country and told that it was the only solution of the Indian political deadlock. Both League and Congress accepted the plan.

  1. 14th August – Transfer of Power 1947:

The transfer of power ceremony was held in Karachi. On August 15, Quaid-e-Azam was sworn in as Governor General of Pakistan and Mr. Liaqat Ali Khan was appointed his Prime Minister.