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¡Escribe tu texto aqTHE ANCIEN RÉGIME
The ancient régime was the principal economic, social and political system in Europe in the 18th century. It has different Characteristics:
  • Stratified society:Nobility,Clergy and Ordinary people.
  • Manorial and agrarian economy.
  • Absolute monarchy.
The society was divided by traditional law into three estates:
  • Nobility were privileged
  • Clergy were privileged
  • Ordinary people that belong to the third state and include the rural peasants, urban working class and bourgeoisie.
The nobility and the clergy had some Privileges: 
  • No taxes. 
  • No torture (penal privileges) 
  • Political power. 
  • Own land. 
  • Special tributes (10% of the harvest to the Church). 
The Ordinary people has No privileges. 
The economy was mainly rural,and over 80% of the population worked in agriculture.More than 90% of land in the hands of nobility and the Church.Agriculture used traditional methods with few technical innovation,and productivity was low.Most people practised subsistence farming,which produced just enough food for the population to live.There was no industry except in England;
  • Artisan and manufacturing activities (guilds) 
  • Putting out system (Domestic). 
Trade was limited by inadequate transport systems.Overseas trade was by ship and ground transport was by ground transport. 
The predominant form of government in Europe was absolute monarchy by divine right.The king had absolute power:
  • Issue laws.
  • Administer justice
  • Command the army
  • Foreign policy. 
He was not subjected to any control and did not share his authority with anyone. However the power was limited by:
  • Fundamental law of the kingdom.
  • Divine law
There were other forms of government in europe like for example the Parliamentary system that was common in Britain and the Thirteen Colonies.
Parlamentarism was a form of government where the representatives elected by the people of the country rule that country.Since the middle ages,royal power in England was limited by two Houses of Parliament:the nobles and the clergy (house of lord) and the bourgeoisie representative of cities(houses of common).Monarchy needed the authorization of both houses to introduce new taxes or to declare war.
In the 17th century,The Stuart dynasty wanted to govern without Parliament and proceeded to arrest or execute opponents. This led to a conflict between the supporters of Parliament (Oliver Cromwell) and the monarchy. The conflict led to two major events:
  • In 1649: King Charles I was executed. Civil war ended and a republic was instaured.In 1660 Oliver Cromwell died and monarchy was restored with a new king, Charles II. He accepted the control of the Parliament.
  • In 1689 there was a second revolution. James II (catholic) was overthrown. William of Orange new king, he accepted the Bill of Rights that limited the power of the king.
  • As a consequence the British Parliament was strengthen.
In the 18th century: 
-1707: Great Britain was born 
-Separation of Powers was set up;
  • parliament was given the power to make laws.
  • The monarchs headed the executive branch and retained many of its powers.
  • judicial power were separated from the government.
  • Only the minority had the right to vote.
1º) Population Growth (Social):
-1650→ 100 million people in Europe. 
-1800→ 200 million people in Europe
This happened because of the following causes:
  • Greater agricultural production.
  • Better diet/nutrition. 
  • Fewer major epidemics.
  • Fewer wars in Europe. 
  • Lower death rates.
  • Increase of birth rate. 
  • General economic growth.
2º) The development of agriculture (Economic)
There was ;
  • A great demand
  • More land was cleared for cultivation 
  • New crops and techniques.
As a consequence there was a agricultural revolution and the production increase.
3º) The development of manufacturing (Economic)
To escape the guilds’ strict control over manufacture and sale of items,two new systems of production were introduced:
The domestic system.Peasants were provided with the neccesary raw materials and tools to make products in their workshops.
Factories.These were either state-run or privately owned,and had many worked to make specific products,usually luxury products.
as a consequence urban markets grew and the maritime routes developed.
4º) Increase in capital and prospering bourgeoisie (Economic)
there were more consumers and a grater demand on agricultural and manufactured materials in the 18yh century and this was because of the growth of population
-Economic consequences: 
• Economic growth 
• Growing demand caused prices to rise. 
-Social consequences:
• Impoverishment of the nobility. 
• Bourgeoisie became richer
• Expansion of trade and new forms of production. Manorial
system fell into crisis.
5º) Science and progress
The scientific revolution began in the 17th century. Remember names like: Kepler, Pascal, Galileo, Newton… . This phenomenon continued during the 18th century due to the idea of progress. 
There were advances in: 
• Medicine • Fortifications.
• Roads • Steam Engine (Newcomen and Watt)
Enlightenment: it was an intellectual and cultural movement that appeared in Europe in the 18th century. This movement challenged the authority of the Ancient Régime and proposed a new way of organising society. These ideas were adopted by the bourgeoisie. Ideological bases of the Enlightenment: 
  •  Reason as the only way to understand and explain the world.
  • They believe in progress
  • Deism: to believe in God through reason and the observation of nature.
  • Optimism: humans were born to be happy. 
Enlightened despotism was a political movement developed by some absolute European monarchs in the 18th century. It consisted in introducing Enlightenment idea of progress without having to give up their absolute authority. The motto was  “All for the people, nothing by the people”.They promoted the rationalization of administration and the modernization of economy. 
Three main enlightenment thinkers:
  • Montesquieu: proposed the separation of powers.
  • Voltaire: defended the need of a parliament that limits the power of the monarch, and fiscal justice
  • Rousseau: expressed the need for a social contract between the ruler and the individuals (constitution). Also defended the idea of popular sovereignty (power comes from the free consent of all citizens, expressed through voting). 
Physiocracy: agriculture and productive work as the source of national wealth (François Quesnay). (opposed to Mercantilism).
Economic liberalism: they were against state regulations and defended free trade (Adam Smith)
Means of distribution of knowledge;
  • Universities and the Scientific academies→Academic Sphere 
  • Coffee houses,Literary salons,Newspapers and Books→Cultural Sphere
The Encyclopédie;
  • Edited by Diderot and d’Alembert. 
  • 20 volumes. 
  • Its aim was to bring together the knowledge of the time and share it with all who could read. 
A new dynasty rules Spain :
  • Charles II died in 1700 and Philip of Bourbon came into power. That resulted in the War of the Spanish Succession. 
  • Philip V won the war against Charles IV of Austria. France and Spain established an international alliance called the Family Compact (Pactos de Familia)
  • Philip V (1700-1746) and Ferdinand VI (1746-1759) started the centralization of the state.
  • Charles III (1759-1788) was influenced by enlightened despotism. He tried to modernise Spanish economy.
  • Charles IV (1788-1808) put a stop to the reform process due to the French Revolution. 
There were Internal conflict but with an international dimension.Two pretenders to the throne: 
  • Philip of Bourbon (France). Supported by Castile and France. 
  • Charles of Habsbourg (Austria). Supported by European countries (Britain, the Dutch Republic, Portugal and the Austrian Empire) and most territories of the Crown of Aragón. 
Phases of the conflict:
  • Victories for Felipe V in the Iberian Peninsula. 
  • Battle of Almansa in 1707. Philip’s troops took over Valencia and Aragón. Victories for Carlos de Habsburgo in Europeans battlefields
Turning point of the conflict:
  • 1711, Carlos de Habsburgo inherited the German Empire. The European allies wanted to prevent the possible union of Spain and Austria. 
  • The war continues on the Peninsula. 
  • 1714, Philip’s troops occupy Catalonia. 
  • 1715, Mallorca fell under Philip’s control. 
  • The Treaty of Utrecht (1713-1715)
Territorial uniformity:
  • Unification of the kingdoms of Aragón and Castile.
  • Castilian administrative system was imposed to the territories of the Crown of Aragón (Nueva Planta Decrees, enacted between 1707-1716). 
  • The Spanish territory was divided into provinces governed by a Captain general.
Administrative reorganisation:
  • Centralised system. 
  • King had absolute power. 
  • Secretaries assist the king in the tasks of government.
Enlightenment was spread by the “Sociedades Económicas de Amigos del País”.Some of the Enlightenment thinkers were: Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, Count of Aranda, Count of Campomanes. 
Economic reforms: 
  • Promotion of the free movement of goods. 
  • Allowing free trade with the Americas from all Spanish ports. 
  • Liberalising the manufacturing process.
Agrarian reform (Jovellanos): 
  • Abolish mortmain and communal land in order to cultivate them more efficiently.
  • Cultivate communal land and wasteland.
In 1770 start of revolutionary processes ,call the liberal revolutions, that will transform Europe and its colonies.As a Consequences Absolute monarchies and three-estate system disappeared ,Bourgeoisie became the dominant social group and New States were created.
The cultural causes of the french revolution was the Impact of Enlightmenment and the American Revolution,
their main ideals were;
  • Inalienable rights 
  • Separation of Powers  
  • Equality 
  • Freedom and the right to elect a government
The social causes of the french revolution was a social crisis,Bourgeoisie and and peasants ,the Third Estate, were opposed to the heavy taxes.Bourgeoisie:
Wants to end the privileges enjoyed by the nobility and clergy and wants Freedom of trade and to participate in political life.
The economic causes of the french revolution was a Economic crisis.Poor harvest since 1760 so this supposed a rise in the price of food.Louis XVI needed money and the Ministers proposed the privileged to pay taxes so that Estates-General were summoned.
In 1789 a revolution breaks out .Estates-General ,created in Middle Ages,was the unique institution with power to approve new taxes. Made up of representatives of the three estates. They met for the last time in 1614. Sessions of the assembly began on 5th May 1789. The Nobility and clergy wanted one vote per state and the third Estate demanded a voting system per person. Their demands were rejected and the Third estate left the assembly.
Louis XVI tried to dissolve the assembly. Third State representatives gathered in a Pavilion in Versailles (Jeu de Paume),They proclaimed themselves as the National Assembly representing the people of the nation and They pledged to draft a constitution. The people of Paris supported the assembly and they stormed the Bastille. Later the revolution spread to the countryside (the Great Fear). The king accepted the National Assembly and France became a constitutional monarchy. It was the end of the Ancient Régime. 
In 7th July 1789 the National Assembly voted to become the National Constituent Assembly (1789-1791).Moderate Bourgeoisie tried to reach and agreement with the King and privileged classes to make France a constitutional and parliamentary monarchy. To do this they issued: 
Declaration of the Rights of Men and of the Citizen (1789): -Abolished feudalism. 
-Recognised the rights of freedom, equal protection by law and equal taxation. 
Constitution (1791)that was based on;
-Separation of powers 
-National sovereignty 
-Census suffrage 
-King’s right to veto.
After approving the Constitution, the National Constituent Assembly was dissolved and substituted by a Legislative Assembly(1791-1792).This drafted new laws to implement liberalism,Force the nobility to pay taxes and Abolish the guilds.A new army,the National guards,was also created to defend the revolution.The church properties were confiscated and in returned the state promised to fund the practice of Catholicism.As a consequences of this first phase a constitutional monarchy was established, but the royal family and many noblemen did not accept these changes. And,also,The king asked Austria and Prussia help to restore absolutism. He tried to flee Paris but was arrested (Flight to Varennes). Austrian troops reached Paris in 1792.
In 10th August 1792 there was a revolt of the common people called sans-culottes. The royal family was imprisoned and a republic was declared. New elections gave the power to girondins ,the most moderate bourgeoisie.A National Convention was elected,a new assembly of representatives .Monarchy was abolished and Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette were executed in 1793. 
As a internacional consequence European monarchies formed an absolutist coalition against the revolutionary France.And,as a Consequences in the Inside of the country a Counter-revolutionary revolts broke out called La Vendée, where peasants uprise against new authorities.Also,Privileged classes organised royalist plots.
 The National Convention (1792-1794) 
This was the most extreme phase of the Revolution. Jacobins,the most radical sector of the Bourgeoisie,seized power in June 1793.As mesures;
-New Constitution was enacted in 1793.The constitution recognize a popular sovereignty,Universal male suffrage.The executive power was led by Committee of Public Safety which gave power to Robespierre.To satisfied the demand of the sans-culottes,a series of social laws were introduced. Prices and salaries were controlled (Law of the Maximum),Education became compulsory and Church lands were sold.
To fight against the Austrian invasion, a mass ley was organized that forced all citizens to join the army. They defeated the Austrians and Prussians. The Reign of Terror was imposed ,executions by guillotine or imprisons. They killed conspirators and political enemies .Finally a coup in 1794 ended with the Terror,Robespierre and other Jacobin leaders were executed. 
THE DIRECTORY(1794-1799) 
After Robespierre’s execution, conservative bourgeoisie took the power.A new Constitution was created(1795),that restored the Census suffrage .Executive power in hands of the Directory was composed by five members. The most prominent leaders were Barras and Sieyès.The Directory was permanent unstable because it faded opposition to aristocracy who wanted to restore absolutism and privileges and common people supported the return of the Jacobins.At the end Napoleon organized a coup in 1799 and ended the Directory.

Separation of powers, division of the legislativeexecutive, and judicial functions of government among separate and independent bodies.
an agreementformutualbenefitbetween an individual or groupandthegovernment or community as a whole like the one proposed by rousseau.