Almoravids -> Songhay

Ahmadu Bamba -> Murid

Berbers -> Desert

Swahili -> Indian Ocean trade

Great Zimbabwe -> Civilization

Sundiata -> Balla Fasacke

Mansa Musa -> Mali

Africanization of Islam:

The way in which Islam has been appropriated/ how Africans have made Islam their own. -Robinson states that there is nothing pejorative about Africanization of Islam – Existential advantage – “Customary Traditions” met with the tenets of Islam.


-Clerics made amulets to provide protection from war, bad luck, evil spirits, accidents, etc. (to protect them from whatever they are wanting to be protected from) -Adorned by both Muslims & non-Muslims -These Amulets spread beyond the Muslim communities

-Muslim clerics also treated & still continues to treat people from illnesses (mental illness, people possessed by evil spirits, fortune tellers) –> as a result, they are very powerful figures both in the religious & political spheres

ARCHITECTURE:-Mali – Islamic Architecture -National Mosque, Abuja, Nigeria

Ibn Battuta

was a Moroccan explorer of Berber descent Over a period of thirty years, Ibn Battuta visited most of the known Islamic world as well as many non-Muslim lands Over a period of thirty years, Ibn Battuta visited most of the known Islamic world as well as many non-Muslim lands. His journeys included trips to North Africa, the Horn of Africa, West Africa and Eastern Europe in the West, and to the Middle East, South Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia and China. Ibn Battuta is considered to be among the great travelers of all time.

African Independent Churches

African Independent Churches, also known as African Indigenous Churches, African Initiated Churches, African Instituted Churches, or just AICs, represent well over 10,000 independent Christian denominations in Africa. African Independent Churches are found in every region and country in Africa, but they are more adequately documented in West Africa and southern Africa. these churches emphasize that they are established and led by Africans. In addition, all AICs place emphasis on the biblical warrant to include African cultural norms into their modes of worship, theology, and practice, though to varying degrees.

Pillars of Islam

1) Declare faith (Shahadah) no god but god and Muhammad is God’s Messenger
2) Pray 5 times a day
3) Charity (Alms) giving 2.5% of one’s savings to the poor and needy
4) Fasting month of Ramadan
5) Pilgrimage to Mecca

Ahmadu Bamba

Aḥmadu Bàmba was born in the village of Mbacké (Mbàkke Bawol in Wolof) in the Kingdom of Baol, the son of amarabout from the Xaadir (Qadriyya) brotherhood, the oldest in Senegal. He was a disciple of a Qadiriyya leader Sheikh Saad Buh. founded the Mouride brotherhood in 1883 and the city of Touba. Ahmadou Bamba is also known to have invented Café Touba.-Peaceful spread of Islam-Senegal in the 19th & early 20th centuries 
-Leader of Mouridiyya Brotherhood

Indian Ocean trade

Indian Ocean trade served an important role in history, and has been a key factor in East-West exchanges. Long distance trade in dhows and sailboats made it a dynamic zone of interaction between peoples, cultures, and civilizations stretching from Java in the East to Zanzibar and Mombasa in the West. Cities and states on the Indian Ocean rim were Janus-faced. They looked outward to the sea as much as they looked inward to the hinterland. In the contemporary period, the re-assertion of Asia’s cultural, political, and economic strength has manifested itself in varied events such as the meteoric rise of the Chinese economy and the growing influence of India’s culture industry, and the rise of Dubai as a global financial hub.

Trans-sharan Trade

Trans-Saharan trade requires travel across the Sahara to reach sub-Saharan Africa from the North African coast, Europe, or the Levant. While existing from prehistoric times, the peak of trade extended from the 8th century until the late 16th century.   

Sundiata Keita

Sundiata was the son of Naré Maghann Konaté (variation: Maghan Konfara) and Sogolon Condé (variations: “Sogolon Kolonkan” or “Sogolon Kédjou”, the daughter of the “buffalo woman”, so called because of her ugliness and hunchback).
Sundiata was crippled from childhood and his mother (Songolon) was the subject of ridicule among her co-wives. She was constantly teased and ridiculed openly for her son’s disability. This significantly affected Sundiata and he was determined to do everything he possibly could in order to walk like his peers. Through this determination, he one day miraculously got up and walked.
To escape persecution and threats on her son’s life, Sogolon took her children, Sundiata and his sisters, into exile. This exile lasted for many years and took them to different countries within the Ghana Empire and eventually to Mema where the king of Mema granted them asylum. Sundiata was admired by the King of Mema for his courage and tenacity.

Mansa Musa

captured the attention of the Arab world when he left his home in the West African kingdom of Mali to make a pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324. Unlike his grandfather Sundiata, Mansa Musa was a devout Muslim. When Mansa Musa passed through the Egyptian city of Cairo, legends say he gave away so much gold that the price of gold fell, and the economy was affected for more than twenty years.

-Ruled for 25 years
-Mali’s most famous ruler
-Left his home to make a pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324
-Introduced empire to the Islamic world & spread Mali’s fame far & wide
-The scholars that Mansa Musa sent to Morocco, built schools in Mali after they came back
-His son, Maghan, took over when he died (was a weak leader)

Prince Henry/Portugal

Henry the Navigator was born in Porto, Portugal, in 1394. In 1415, Henry, his father and his older brothers led an attack on Ceuta, a town in Morocco along the Strait of Gibraltar. The attack succeeded, and Ceuta fell under Portuguese control. Henry has the dubious distinction of being a founder of the Atlantic slave trade. He sponsored Nuno Tristao’s exploration of the African coast, and Antao Goncalves’s hunting expedition there in 1441. Within a few years, Portugal was deeply involved in the slave trade.

Triangular Slave Trade

The best-known triangular trading system is the transatlantic slave trade, that operated from the late 16th to early 19th centuries, carrying slaves, cash crops, and manufactured goods between West Africa, Caribbean or American colonies and the European colonial powers, with the northern colonies of British North America, especially New England, sometimes taking over the role of Europe

Economic Effects of the slave trade – Africa

increase the amount of war that occurred in West Africa. The reason for this is that European (and American) slave traders did not simply go out into the African countryside and kidnap their own slaves. Instead, they bought slaves from the coastal kingdoms.

Social effects of the slave trade – Africa

the slave trade, and the Africans’ resistance to it, led to profound social and political changes. Social relations were restructured and traditional values were subverted. The slave trade resulted in the development of predatory regimes, as well as stagnation or regression. Many communities relocated as far from the slavers’ route as possible. In the process, their technological and economic development was hindered as they devoted their energy to hiding and defending themselves.