Government :the institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies.The three powers of the government (1) legislative power: the power to make laws and to frame public policies (2) executive powerthe power to execute, enforce, and administer laws judicial power the power to interpret laws, to determine their meaning, and to settle disputes that arise within the society.  Dictatorship: The responsibility for exercising of these powers may be held by a single person or by a small group; those who rule cannot be held responsible to the will of the people. Democracy: the responsibility for the exercise of these powers rests with a majority of the people Types of Governments Autocracy: one person holds unlimited political power Oligarchy: a small elite holds the power to rule Theocracy: the legal system is based on religious law. Unitary government, a single, central agency holds all governmental powers. Federal government, a central government and several local governments share governmental powers in a division of powers. Presidential government divides power between the branchesParliamentary government focuses power on the legislative branch. Interactive Chart: Choosing a Chief Executive PRINCIPLES ARE IN THE PREAMBLE OF THE CONSTITUTION Form a more perfect Union,Establish Justice,Insure domestic Tranquility Provide for the common defense,Promote the general Welfare, Secure the Blessings of Liberty Origins of American Political IdealsThe English colonists brought to North America three basic notions that were to loom large in the shaping of government in the United States. Ordered Government, Orderly regulation of relationships with one another Limited Government, Government is restricted in what it may do, each individual has certain rights that the government cannot take away Representative Government, Government should serve the will of the people The Magna Cartaincluded guarantees of such fundamental rights as trial by jury and due process of law (protection against the arbitrary taking of life, liberty, or property). The Petition of Rightlimited the king’s power in several ways. Most importantly, it demanded that the king no longer imprison or otherwise punish any person but by the lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land.The English Bill of Rights,prohibited a standing army in peacetime, except with the consent of Parliament, and required that all parliamentary elections be free.Three Types of Colonies Royal Colonies, were subject to the direct control of the Crown. 2.Proprietary Colonies, there were three proprietary colonies: Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. These colonies were organized by a proprietor, a person to whom the king had made a grant of land. Unicameral legislature. Charter Colonies, Colonies established by agreement with British government. Connecticut and Rhode Island were charter colonies. Laws made by their bicameral legislatures were not subject to the governor’s veto, nor was the Crown’s approval needed. The President’s Many Roles Chief of state: the ceremonial head of the government of the United States Chief executive:sees that the nation’s laws are carried outChief Administrator:  the director of the huge executive branch of the Federal Government. Chief Diplomat: determines foreign policy Chief Legislator: proposes laws to congress.Commander in Chief: commands the armed forces Chief Economist: primary responsibility for the development, coordination, and production of economic and financial analysis.Chief of his affiliation party: leads his/her political party Chief Citizen: represents the American people Unalienable rights Bill of rights: The first ten amendments in the constitution Civil liberties: are protections against government. They are guarantees of the safety of persons, opinions, and property from arbitrary acts of government. Ex. freedom of speech, religion, press, fair trial. Civil Rights: Positive acts of government that seek to make constitutional guarantees a reality for all people. Ex. Laws against discrimination.Freedom of Religion, Freedom of Speech and Press, Freedom of Assembly and Petition ,Due Process of Law:It means that in whatever it does, government must act fairly and in accord with established rules. Etc. Diversity and Discrimination The unalienable rightsSlander: False and malicious use of spoken words. Picketing: Patrolling of a business site by workers who are on strike Symbolic Speech: Expression by conduct; communicating ideas through facial expression, body language, or by carrying a sign or wearing an arm band or even burning an American flag.Libel: False and malicious use of printed words Constitution declares that a person may become an American citizen by birth or by naturalization. Public opinion :those attitudes held by a significant number of people on matters of government and politics. Factors that influence people’s public opinion. family, school, mass media, peer groups ,opinion, leaders ,historic events.