MSU: midstream urine specimen bladder a membranous sac which holds or stores a secretion catheterisation to introduce a catheter into a person e.g. a urinary catheter chaperone someone who accompanies someone else especially during an intimate procedure cortex hard outer covering ESRF end stage renal failure erythrocyte red blood cell kidney an organ which helps maintain proper water and electrolyte balance and filters out wastes leucocyte white blood cell medulla centre or inner part of an organ renal failure condition where the kidney does not function properly and the waste products of the body are not excreted properly renal transplant a surgical procedure to graft a healthy, functioning kidney from a living or deceased donor into a patient with nonfunctioning kidneys ureter tube through which urine passes from kidney to bladder urethra a tube which transports urine from the bladder to the outside of the body urinalysis the checking of urine for abnormalities as a diagnostic tool UTI urinary tract infection Urinalysis: the process of analysing urine using physical or chemical test Urine: the fluid which is excreted by the kidneys Urinal: also called bottle; used by male patients to pass urine int Bed pan: a toileting receptacle which is used by bed-bound patient Renal: relating to the kidneys PH: the measurement of how acidic or alkaline a solution is Proteinuria: protein in the urine, also called albuminuria Haematuria (US hematuria): blood in the urine Specimen: a simple, usually of urine or bloodOedema: excessive accumulation of liquid in the tissues Anuria: no urine output Nephrons: filtering units of the kidney Oliguria: low urine output

INR: International Normalised Ratio ampoule (amp) a small glass vial that is used as a container for an injection solution cholesterol substance found in animal tissues and some foods controlled drug (CD) a drug e.g. morphine, whose supply is strictly controlled by law contraindicated to advised for use with a particular medicine or treatment because it is or might be harmful designated nurse a nurse who is allocated a task, e.g. medication administration, to ensure maximum concentration on the task dose specified amount of a medication to draw up (in a syringe) withdraw an amount of fluid from a vial into the barrel of a syringe drug interaction a reaction between drugs which may decrease or increase the desired effect of the drugs drug register a book where nurses record and sign for the number of controlled drugs used in each ward or unit expiry date the date after which the medication or IV fluid may not be therapeutic INR International Normalised Ratio IM/IMI Intramuscular injection; an injection which is given into the muscle liver disease a disease which decreases liver function mane in the morning metabolism chemical process in the body which breaks down substances to make energy nocte at night orally by mouth over-the-counter (OTC) medication medication which can be bought at a pharmacy without a prescription route the manner which a drug enters the body e.g. oral, rectal, IV self-medication to administer medication to oneself without a doctor’s prescription or advice side effects unwanted effects of a medicationtab : solid medication, also called a pillcap.: gelatin-coated medicationmg: milligram – unit of mass which is 1/1000 of a grammcg: microgram – unit of mass which is 1/1000 of a milligramml: milliliter – unit of volume which is 1/1000 of a litrepo: by mouthsc: injection given into the subcutaneous layer of the skinIM: injection given into the musclemane: in the morningnocte: at night

additive any substance which is added to another substance to improve it or prevent deterioration Dextrose a sugar which is the most common form of glucose erythema rednessness of the skin caused by injury or infection fluid intake fluid which enters the body by mouth, by feeding tube, rectally or infiltration fluid accumulation in the tissues in excess amounts . Also called tissuing IVC intravenous cannula intravenous fluids fluids which are administered through a vein, also called IV fluids or drip intravenous infusion a solution which is usually contained in a litre bag, also called a bag Intravenous Prescription Chart a chart which is used by a doctor to order IV fluids for a patient, also called Intravenous Fluids Order phlebitis inflammation of a vein PICC Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter preloaded infusion an infusion which already contains an additive, e.g. potassium chloride (KCl) staphylococcus (pl. staphylococci) abbrev staph. a group of bacteria which cause local infections and other serious infections to take down a line to remove an IV infusion TKVO/KVO to keep the vein open Nosocomial: contracted in hospitalPhlebitis: inflammation of the veinInfiltration: when fluid leaks into surrounding tissues; in nursing jargon: tissuedStaph: staphylococci bacteria – types of microbes usually found on the skinIV giving set: trubing which is spikedinto the infusion bag and connected to the IV cannula; also called an IV administration setErythema: redness of the skin which can indicate infectionAseptic technique: no touch method used to avoid contamination Resite an IV cannula: replace it in a different veinPositional: describes an IV line which stops running because the line becomes blocked off due to patient movement.IV: IntravenousIVC: (IV) cannulaK: PotassiumN/S: Normal SalineIV Abs: Intravenous antibioticsKCI: Potassium chlorideMMOLS: MillimolsPICC: Peripherally InsertedCentral CatheterKVO: Keep the vein open Lge amt: Larger amount UTT: up to the toilet BO: bowels opened C/F: carried forward U/O: urine output BNO: bowels not opened Sml amt: small amount wet bed: small amount asp: aspirate mod amt: moderate amount

Thrombus:solid mass which forms in blood vessels; also called a blood clot Anti-embolic:stops an embolus from formin DVT:deep vein thrombosis Anticoagulant:usually refers to a medication which inhibits the formation of thromboses Coagulation: the process of blood cloatting Gallbladder:abdominal organ which stores bile Laparoscope:surgical instrument which is inserted into the abdomen to visualise the abdominal òrgans Anaesthetic:drug which blocks pain and other sensations before an operation is performed PCA:Patient-controlled analgèsia Overdose:taking excess amounts of medication with serious health consequences Lock-out time:safety mesure which prevents patients from continually obtaining analgesia by pressing a patient-control button Keyhole surgery:minimally invasive surgery performed with the use of a laparoscope, using small incisoins or surgical cuts Venodilatation:streaching or widening of a vein Embolus:a blood clot which breaks off and moves freely along a blood vessel Embolism:the condition which is caused when a blood clot blocks blood flow Venous stasis the pooling of blood in the veïns O/T: operating theatre INR: Independent Radio News Sml: small IDC: indwelling catheterPE pulmonary embolism

A&E: Accident and Emergency RTA:road traffic accident GCS:Glasgow Coma Scale: records the conscious state of a patient Neuro obs.:observations which assess neurological function and include a GCS assessment Oxygen sats/ SaO2:measure of the amount of oxygen which is loaded or saturated into the red blood cells as they pass through the lungs NAD:Non adhesive dressing Prn:from the latin pro re nata – take whenever required Nociceptor: A receptor which detects painful stimuli Cutaneous: relating to the skin Visceral: referring to the internal organs of the bodyIncision: a cut into the skin; often refers to a surgical cutLocalised pain: pain which is felt around the site of an injuryReferred pain: pain which is felt in a part of the body away from the injury sitePain threshold: level of stimulation required before pain felt Pain tolerance: the most pain which a person can put up with NSAIDs: non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs; also called non-steroidals Opioids: drugs which produce a morphine-like effect Endorphins: opiate proteins with pain-relieving properties which occur naturally in the brain Anti-pyretic: a medication which brings down a high temperature Background drug: a drug used to support the main analgesic Multimodal: treatment which combines several types of pain management Breakthrough dose: medication which is given in between doses where more pain relief is needed

Hemisphere: one of the 2 regions of the brain; hemi means half Carotid artery: either of the two arteries which supply blood to the brain Circle of Willis: area underneath the brain where the cerebral arteries are linked Ischaemia: inadequate blood supply caused by a blockage in the blood vessel; isch means deficiency CVA: cerebrovascular accident, or stroke. Ischaemic stroke: type of stroke caused when a thrombus blocks the carotid artery, resulting in ischaemia and tissue necrosis; the most common type of stroke. Haemorrhagic stroke: type of stroke caused when a blood vessel bursts causing blood to leak into the brain: causes around 1/5 of strokes Hemiparesis: weakness on one side of the body Hemiplegia: paralysis on one side of the body Hemianopia: defective vision on one half of the body leads to neglect of one side of the body Aphasia: inhability to communicate Dysphasia: difficulty expressing what you are thinking Dysphagia: difficulty swallowing food or fluids Dysarthria: motor speech impairment which affects the ability to form words clearly Emotional lability: inappropriate emotional responses, for example laughing when the intention is to cry. cerebral hemisphere one of the two structures which make up the largest part of the brain EDD: expected date of discharge Fasteners: devices which joint 2 pieces of clothing together; for example, buttons Mechanical transferring aids: mechanical devices used to transfer disabled patients ; for example, hoists or sit-to-stand lifters Parenteral: administered in any other form but orally, for example by injection or through a feeding tuve. Continent: having control of bladder and bowel

Supervision: watching a patient to ensure an action is performed safely Defecation: the act of passing faeces Incontinent: not having control of bladder and bowel Urination: the act of passing urine; also called micturition