Two different attitudes when analizing art: objectivist attitudes (there is a specific object in the text that can be defined as literary, there is something in the text that makes m e call it literary, it has to be an artistic object, that is the artistic specificity) It is defined depending on the society). Aesthetic meaning is based on absolute values (intrinsic to the LITERARY text). 
; and the anti-objectivist attitudes (there is no objective literary when defining literature, Neo- Pragmatism: aesthetic properties are based on social conventionalism).  
From now we are going to be objectivist, universals are for example to put a lot of meaning into a few words, figures of speech. There are some aesthetic values that belong to any literary text, there is an object that define literarure. ( Artistic specificity) 
Language is a means of communication (music, signs, body language, pictures, painting, cinema, literature), if we were anti objectivist we will say that language is the most complex means of communication, language as the most sophisticated, the element of human communication. 
So Theory of literature’s desire after Russian Formalism is to becoming a science, the task is to specify the qualities of literary language.  
The literary text, we have many difficulties for defining the concept of literature.  Why do some sentences become LITERARY whereas other remain as 
STANDARD LANGUAGE?  (objectivist will say that there is something there that makes it art) 
Subjectivity, figures of speech, rythmic value or messure. 
-The standar communicative language: language used for everyday communication. The zero degree. 
-Literary language: deviations from zero degree. 
The same language with a different use and a different level. 
Different transfefrences from standart to literary language: 
 -Formal devices (figures of speech… anti objectivists would say that we use those patrons in everyday language) 
 -Polysemy: as many menaings as possible readings (every person has a different meaning in literary language whereas standar language not) The literary message does not exhaust the meaning in a single one, it is always expanding meaning in differet way. (an anti objectivist will say that the meaning depends on the contexto/cotexto whereas an objectivist would say that it depends on the language) Polysemy may also arise from the cotext and the context.  
-Poetic strain: The literary ytext has its own linguistic entity (objectivist point of view)  tensión poética, every verse transmits more information than the simple sequence of its words. Signifieds and signifiers differ from everyday language. 

The literary language is: 
1.A special form of knowledge. 
2.Creates particular views of reality 
3.Thanks to special linguistic phenomena (connotation and ambiguity, among others) 
4.Conditioning the linguistic operations of selection and combination that the author can perform. 

Linguistics will tell me which text are literary and which are not. 
Poeticity is the consequence of an aesthetic outcome. Literature depends on the norms but following the norms does not mean that we are creating a poetic text. 
Therefore literariness is a conventional cultural option. By following the conventions I will create a literary text. But poeticity depends on the aesthetic value but it is unpredictable because you may copy other poets by that does not mean that you are going to creaty good poeticity.  Aesthetic is rooted on sentimental (it makes you feel something) and imaginary reasons (which they are universal). But also it is unpredictable because you cannot reduce the complex textual whole of the literary work. Which means, it is not due to an specific word but about all the words and how they are used, how the fuction all together. It depends on the network or set of relationships that are stablished by different words.
Artistic specificity: Causes of Poeticity 
•Phonetic-phonological Level : aesthetic emotions provoked by rhythm, sounds, transrationality, etc. 
•Morphosyntactic Level: created by hyperbaton or rhythmical syntax (not logical one, it depends the rhythm). 
•Lexical Semantic Level: dependin on the lexicon (which words I will use), polysemi and fictionality (if mythic / anthropologial) . Barredo says that every literary text is ficticious, but not every ficticious text is poetic. When fiction creates mythic and anthropological is when the fiction is in poety (love or other emotions that are aesthetic). 
Fictionality and literariness 
Standard communicative language, the zero degree, is not litetature, is not fiction.  Every literary text is ficticious. 
Implicit agreement between Sender and Receiver. When we read a ficticious text there is a implicit agreement between the author and the reader. This means that when you read the text you agree with the author on something. The reader will accept that not everything that is said on the text is true.