tema 6

Capitalism:  · This is based on a free market economy (the law of supply and demand between producers and consumers). · Private ownership (individual or companies) of the means of production, freedom to work and hire. · State intervention on a small scale. Communism: ·In this system, the economy is planned and centralized by the state. ·The production process is controlled and the state is -the owner of the means of production.  Private property and initiative do not exist, only state-owned properties. ·Its objective is to achieve collective benefit through policies decided upon by the state. ·This system was very important in the past, but it has practically disappeared since the break up of the Soviet Union in 1991. Mixed economy: ·This involves greater intervention from the state in terms of establishing laws, regulating certain prices and providing for the social well-being of its citizens. ·Both of these system are used widely across the world. Subsistence system: ·This is a system based on production for self-consumption in the poorest and most isolated areas in the world. There is no division of labour, or mechanisation, and there is hardly any economic or social development.
2.  concepts:
Globalisation: tendency of the markets and companies across the world to go beyond national borders and integrate. Multinational: act outside of their country of origin and are present in many other countries through affiliated companies, and they employ thousands of people. Coca-cola, Microsoft…  World Economic Leaders: The economic leaders are the United States, the European Union and Japan Asian Tigers: The technological development and growth that has taken place in some countries, south corea, taiwan, hong kong and Singapore Countries with petroleum. These belong to the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries  (OPEC) headed by Saudi BRICS: This is made up of the emerging countries Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. All of them have a rapidly growing economy and are becoming more and more important.

3. Describe the economic sectors:

Primary: although the primary sector has gone through big changes over the last years, it is still significant because it provides food as well as the raw materials that the industry uses and converts into other things.

Secondary: the secondary sector is mainly a sector that involves production and construction. It requires a large amount of energy, which is extracted from a variety of natural resources.

Tertiary: the biggest changes in countries economies over the last few decades have occurred in the tertiary sector, or the service sector.

4. diferences between the primary sector in the developed world and in the non developed world.

Allowed us to produce more food. Large agricultural areas, such as the United States, the European Union and Canada, have relatively few people working in the agricultural sector (less than 5%) In contrast to these developed economies that carry out agricultural and livestock activities for the purposes of trade, other countries do these activities for self-consumption. This involves a large number of workers but low efficiency. This happens in less advanced areas of Africa, Asia and America. 

6. How has industry been transformed in the last decades.

Industry has been transformed over the last few decades. It uses technology and robots to perform many of the operations on the assembly line (cars, electrical appliances and computers).

7. Which are the great industrialised countries nowadays?

The great industrialised countries are the ones with the most advanced economies and technology: The United States, Japan, the European Union, Russia, China and India.

8. What is “relocation”?

Some industries have moved from more developed countries with strict environmental laws and high labour costs, to other countries with more liberal laws and lower wages. This process is known as relocation

9. Define:

Renewable energies: Are those that are never going to finish. Are expensive to be implemented, Are not polluting Ex. Solar energy, eolic energy, hydraulic energy

Non renewable energies:Are those that are going to finish . Are very polluting . PE: oil, coal, natural gas, nuclear energy

10. What does Spanish secondary sector consist of?

TheSpanish secondary sector consists of activities related to industry and energy as well as construction

The production of energy: Spain does not produce oil or gas and has to import them, but it is one of the largest global producers of wind power. Spain also has many reservoirs to generate hydroelectric energy and has seven nuclear power plants.

Industrial activity: The main Spanish industrial areas are located in the provinces of Madrid and Barcelona, in the Communist at Valenciana, Pais Vasco and in some areas of Andalucía (Gibraltar), Galicia (Vigo), Zaragoza and Asturias

Construction: The sector grew a lot at the beginning of the 21st century, especially big cities and the development of tourist areas along the coast

11. Does Spain produce renewable or non renewable energy? Explain it.

No renewable. Spain does not produce oil or gas and has to import them, but it is one of the largest global producers of wind power. Spain also has many reservoirs to generate hydroelectric energy and has seven nuclear power plants.

12. Do a diagram of the point 5.2. “Tertiary sector in Spain”.

In Spain, tertiary activities employ 76% of the workforce, divided between the public sector and the private sector.

  • Government, the administration of justice and public safety: are services exclusively by the public sector.
  • Education and helthcare: citizens’ health and education depend on them. Free access to both of them is guaranteed by the state for all Spanish citizens. There are also private universities, schools and hospitals.
  • Banking: provides the money (charging interest on money lent) needed to acquire goods (houses, cars) or to start up companies. Cultural and recreational services important: libraries, theatres, cinemas) growth in the commercial sector, the transport sector and tourism sector is a sing of the level of development of our society.
  • Tourism: Spain is ranked as one of the top countries in the world for tourist numbers (almost 65 million in 2014).

13. What is sustainability of economic activity?

Sustainable economic development exploits, but does not deplete, renewable resources; it does not harm natural spaces or their inhabitants.

Indstry has been transformed over the last few decades. It uses technology and robo