Technology and Communication: A Historical Perspective

Technique and Technology

A technique is a systematic procedure or set of steps that performs a particular task. It also includes the ability to use those procedures.

Technology is the application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes. Its purpose is to develop and use effective techniques for production and communication.


Communication technologies allow for data storage and transmission, providing various forms of communication.

Technological Artifacts for Communication

  • Satellite
  • Computer
  • Connected devices
  • Multimedia
  • Internet
  • TV

Generations of Computers

1st Generation (1946-1958)

Used vacuum tubes, which caused errors due to heat. Large size, weight, and wiring. Required a strictly controlled environment. Software was written in machine language.

2nd Generation (1958-1965)

Transistors replaced tubes, reducing size by 50%. Less strict environmental control. Internal programming. Processing speed measured in microseconds. High-level languages began to be used.

3rd Generation (1965-1970)

Microtransistors replaced transistors, further reducing size. Internal memory management using magnetic cores. Processing speed measured in microseconds. Operating system concept emerged.

4th Generation (1971-1980)

Integrated circuits replaced microtransistors. Processing speed measured in nanoseconds. Multiprogramming introduced. Higher-level programming languages appeared.

5th Generation (1980-2010)

Processing architecture emulated the human brain using neural networks. Extensive use of artificial intelligence. Device connectivity and remote access. Multimedia environment with integration of data, images, etc.

Components of a Computer

Internal Components

  • Microprocessor or CPU
  • Motherboard
  • Video and sound cards
  • Power supply
  • Hard disk
  • Floppy disk drive
  • CD-ROM drive
  • RAM memory


Devices connected to the motherboard for user interaction and data input/output.

Input Devices

Allow users to enter data into the computer (e.g., keyboard, mouse).

Output Devices

Display and output information processed by the computer (e.g., monitor, printer).

Input/Output Devices

Store and retrieve information on secondary storage devices (e.g., hard disk, disk, CD-ROMs, magnetic tape).


Controls all processes in the computer and is assembled on the motherboard. Consists of a control unit and an arithmetic logic unit (ALU).

Control Unit

Controls the operation of the microprocessor and external elements by sending control signals.

Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

Performs mathematical, logical, and comparison operations.


Intangible elements that control and interact with the hardware.

Base Software

Controls the operating system, provides hardware control, and supports other programs.

Programming Software

Tools for programmers to develop computer programs using various programming languages.

Application Software

Allows users to perform specific tasks in various fields.


Storage locations for data that can be accessed at any time.

File Extensions

Strings attached to file names, usually preceded by a period. Indicate the file’s content and determine the appropriate procedure for running or interpreting it.

File Names

Certain characters cannot be used in file names, depending on the operating system and file system. In Windows, the following characters are not allowed: / ‘| = <> |