Sin título 1

COGNITIVE FACTORS: STYLES:+To learn: visual, auditory or kinaesthetic style.+To organize information: field- independent, analytical or synthetic, reflective or impulsive, etc.+To elaborate information: communicative, conformist, critical thinkers, memorizing learners, etc.//STRATEGIES:+Direct strategies: cognitive,compensation, memory. +Indirect strategies: metacognitive, affective and social./// AFECTS IN A LANGUAGE LEARNING:  -Success in language learning depends“less on materials, techniques and linguistic analysis and more on what goes on inside and between the people in the classroom. -Success in language learning depends“less on materials, techniques and linguistic analysis and more on what goes on inside and between the people in the classroom.//+MOTIVATION: -Intrinsic: associated with better and long-term learning-Extrinsic: associated with short-term learning for children.——-LEARNING LANGUAGES MOTIVATIONÇ:-Integrative motivation: Students want to learn the language because they want to get to know the people who speak that language. They are also interested in the culture associated with that language.-Instrumental motivation: students want to learn a language because of a practical reason such as getting a salary bonus or getting into college.//PERSONALITY: ——SELF-ESTEEM AND SELF- EFFICACY:The learning difference between children with high or low levels of self-esteem and self-efficacy is enormous. A student with low self- expectations will actually have poorer results: it is what we call the self-fulfilling prophecy.—-PERSONALITY: When dealing with communication, extroversion, risk-taking and empathy can help learners to develop speaking faster.///TEACHER’S PERSPECTIVES:—–THE PYGMALION EFFECT:Importance of communicating positive expectations and reinforcing children self-esteem.///ANXIETY:+ Communicative classes: It implies a certain amount of anxiety (probably more so than mechanical grammar practice), but is absolutely necessary to deal with it to promote communicative competence.+Formal instruction: Children start to manifest anxiety when language learning becomes more formally instructed and demands communicative interactions without preparation.— To increase SELF-STEEM AND MOTIVATION and eliminate ANXIETY, teachers need to:+Provide a safe atmosphere: Deal with errors in a constructive/ positive way+Use a student-centered model: we increase autonomy and self appreciation.+Promote cooperative learning and respect learning styles.—-(Relaxing techniques,Physical activity.Humour.Importance of teacher ́s verbal and not verbal messageS,Opportunities to reflect upon the learning process.///MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES:-Every single person is intelligent in a different way, and at least gifted for three different intelligences.-Dealing with individual characteristics in the classroom means showing respect for every single student, no matter their sex, personality.-It is not only a cognitive process (age, gender, etc.) such as becoming skilled at communication and grammar, but also an emotional experience—–Mathematical- logical,Verbal-linguistic, Musical-rhythmic, Bodily-kinaesthetic, Interpersonal,Intrapersonal, Visual-spatial,Naturalist,Existential.////THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER:  +CONTROLLER: Teachers play the role of controller when they are totally in charge of the class. They control what pupils do, when they speak and what language they use. This role is clearly visible at the presentation stage of a session in which language is being reviewed or presented for the first time. +ORGANISER: the success of many activities depends on good organization and on the pupils knowing exactly what they are going to do. Once the activity has begun teachers intervene to use gentle correction or to prompt. +PROMPTER: sometimes teachers need to encourage o pupils to participate or teachers may need to make suggestions about how pupils may proceed in an activity where there is a silence or pupil there are confused. +PARTICIPANT: Especially in simulations it may be interesting for teachers to participate with pupils in the activity. However, it is important to limit the teacher talking time as the objective in the language classroom is giving pupils an opportunity to practice English.+RESOURCE: in communicative activities teachers should be a resource centre. Teachers should be ready when pupils need linguistic help. Thishelp should only be given when a previous effort has been made by pupils. +ASSESSOR: one of the main roles teachers play is that of assessing pupils’ work. Teachers can distinguish between correcting and organizing feedback that is a major part of assessing our pupils’ performance so that they can see the extent of their success or failure.