Environmental sciences: It is an academic field that provides an integrated, quantitative and interdisciplinary approach to the study of the components of the Earth, the interactions established among them and with the human system to find the solution of environmental problems. Environment: The study of the interaction between the physical , chemical, biological and social components of the natural world, including their effects on all types of organisms and how humans impact their surroundings. Multidisciplinary field: It combines ideas and information from the natural sciences  and the social sciences. Scientific method: Is a planned , organized approach to solving a problem.  Systems science: It considers interactions between the Earth’s “spheres” -atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, pedosphere, biosphere and even the magnetosphere- as well as the impact of human societies on these components Analytic and reductionistic:It assumes analytical (It is the art of measurement and interpretation) and reductionism (the scientific attempt to provide explanation in terms of ever smaller entities) views of the Earth’s spheres and their many constituent subsystems. Holistic and global: Holism refers to any approach that emphasizes the whole, rather than the constituent parts of a system. Anthropocene:The Earth’s most recent geologic time period as being human-influenced. The word combines the root “anthropo”, meaning “human” with the root “-cene”, the standard suffix for “epoch” in geologic time. Natural resource: it is any material, service, or information from the environment that is valuable to society. Environmental impact: Possible adverse effects caused by a development, industrial, or infrastructural project or by the release of a substance in the environment. Environmental hazard: is a substance, a state or an event which has the potential to threaten the surrounding natural environment or adversely affect people’s health, including pollution and natural disasters such as storms and earthquakes. Contamination: Contamination is simply the presence of a substance  where it should not be or at concentrations above background. Pollution: the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that brings about changes that affect our normal lifestyles adversely.  Pollutant: a waste material that pollutes air, water or soil. Can be in the form of liquids, solid materials or gases. Renewable energy: energy from a source that is not depleted when used. Non-renewable energy: energy from a source that is depleted when used.

PETROLEUM: It is formed from animals and plants that lived millions of years ago when heat and pressure turned decayed matter into crude oil. PROS (1): Economical to produce,easy to transport. CONS (1): High CO2 emissions. PROPANE: It is produced as a byproduct from natural gas processing and crude oil refining. PROS (1): Nontoxic and insoluble in water. CONS (1): Highly flammable. NATURAL GAS: Consists primarily of methane but includes significant ethane, butane, propane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium and hydrogen sulfide. It is found underground by drilling. PROS (1): Widely available.  CONS (1): Pipelines impact ecosystems. COAL: It is formed from trees and plants in vast primeval forests  when heat and pressure  turned decayed matter into coal. PROS (1):  Abundant supply. CONS (1): Acid rain. NUCLEAR ENERGY:  It is generated reactors, when nuclear fuel fission heats water, and the steam turns turbines to run the generators that convert energy into electricity. PROS(1): No greenhouse gases or CO2 emissions. CONS(1): Radioactive waste. SOLAR ENERGY: It is generated when photovoltaic cells convert heat from the sun directly into electricity. PROS(1): Non Polluting. CONS(1): Dependent on sunny weather.  HYDROELECTRIC ENERGY: It is generated when following water turns turbines to run generators that convert energy into electricity. PROS (1): No emissions. CONS(1): More expensive to produce than fossil fuels systems. WIND POWER: It is generated when wind turns turbines to run the generators that convert energy into electricity, which is then stored in batteries. PROS (1): No emissions. CONS (1): Extensive land use. 

1-It is an abundant supply and is found in water: HYDROGEN 2-It is generated by underground heat by drilling steam wells: GEOTHERMAL ENERGY 3-Less energy in a gallon than in a gallon of gasoline / diesel fuel: ETHANOL 4-Can be used in diesel engines: BIOMASS 5-It is produced from vegetable oils, animal fats, recycled greases, and waste products: BIOMASS 6-It is found in few areas around the world: GEOTHERMAL ENERGY 7-It is subset of biomass that is manufactured from organic chemicals extracted from plants / trees residue: ETHANOL 8-It is easily manufactured and fewer emissions than fossil fuel sources: BIOMASS 9-Storage / fuel cell technology still being developed: HYDROGEN 10-Extensive use of cropland: ETHANOL

THE ATMOSPHERE: the gaseous envelope surrounding the earth. The atmosphere is divided in layers. Troposphere: +Meteorical phenomena: -Clouds, fog, frost and dew -Rain, snow and hail -Hurricanes, whirlwinds or dust storms and tornadoes. +The greenhouse effect. Stratosphere: +The ozone layer (ozonosphere) -near the top of this layer-.+ Only horizontal air currents. Aircraft often fly in the lower stratosphere to scape the turbulence present in the troposphere. Mesosphere: +The noctilucent clouds (ice clouds) +It contains chemicals which absorb energy from the sun. Thermosphere: +Polar auroras, Aurora polaris (the northern lights)+Any person travelling at this altitude is considered an astronaut. +Space shuttles and some satellites orbit within this layer. Ionosphere: +Free ionic particles can be found. +It reflects radio waves (long distance communication). Exosphere: +Outermost atmospheric layer, no definite outer limit. +Many satellites orbit.

1-Problem of long-term storage of waste (NUCLEAR) 2-Little disruption of ecosystems (WIND POWER) 3-More expensive to produce than fossil fuel systems (HYDROELECTRIC) 4-Systems last 15-30 years (SOLAR) 5-Extensive land use (WIND POWER) 6-Currently uses a large amount of fossil fuels (HYDROELECTRIC) 7-High initial investment (SOLAR) 8-Reliable (HYDROELECTRIC) 9-Can pose a threat to birds (WIND POWER) 10-Higher capital costs due to safety,emergency, containment, waste, and storage systems (NUCLEAR) 11- Requires large physical space (SOLAR) 12-Most abundant energy source available (SOLAR)