URTI upper respiratory tract infection SOB shortness of breath; difficulty breathing RR respiratory rate CXR chest X-ray p/f peak flow Pt ed. Patient education PCA Patient Controlled Analgesia AE air entry FBC full blood count apnoea the patient isn’t breathing at all bradypnoea abnormally slow breathing, less than 12 breath per min eupnoea easy, free respiration under normal resting conditions 12-20 breath tachypnoea abnormally fast breathing 20-30 dyspnoea difficulty breathing, also called shortness of breath Inspiration: breathing in expiration: breathing out inspiratory rate: rate at which a person breathes in respirations: breaths respiratory rate rate at which person breathes in and out expiration rate: the rate at which person breathes out @ 4L/min at four litres per minute

Pancreas: the organ which produces insulin, which regulates blood sugar Diabetes: disease characterised by high levels of sugar in the blood Diabetic: A person who suffers from diabetes Hypoglycaemia: a low level of sugar in the blood Hypoglycaemic agent: oral medication used to lower blood sugar levels Glycosuria: presence of glucose in the urine Ketones: the by-product produced when fats metabolise Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA): the condition where the blood is more acidic tan the surrounding tissues. Insulin: hormone produced in the beta cells of the pancreas Blood sugar level (BSL): amount of glucose in the blood. beta cells cells which secrete insulin in the pancreas bile greenish fluid secreted by the liver which helps in the breakdown and absorption of fats bolus an extra dose of a medication given to raise the blood concentration to a therapeutic common bile duct The duct that forms when the hepatic duct and the cystic duct join before emptying bile into the duodenum co-morbidities the condition of having two or more diseases at the same duodenum the first part of the small intestine which extends from the pylorus end of the stomach to the jejunum gallbladder a small organ under the liver which stores bile until it is needed glucose monitor an instrument which measures and records the amount of glucose on a strip containing capillary blood. hypoglycaemicattack a condition caused by decreased blood sugar levels; to low for proper brain function islet cells a cluster of cells found in the pancreas which secrete hormones including insulin and glucagon, also called islets of Langerhans nicotine patch an adhesive patch for the skin which contains slow-release nicotine, used by smokers when quitting smoking to minimise withdrawal symptoms syringe a medical instrument used to inject fluids into the body or take fluids out of the body vial a small container for liquids

UNIT 6: ampoule (amp) a small glass vial that is used as a container for an injection solution – cholesterol substance found in animal tissues and some foods, that is synthesised by the liver and forms an important part of cell membranes – controlled drug(CD) a drug e.g. morphine, whose supply is strictly controlled by law – contraindicated to advised for use with a particular medicine or treatment because it is or might be harmful – designated nurse a nurse who is allocated a task, e.g. medication administration, to ensure maximum concentration on the task – dose specified amount of a medication – to draw up(in a syringe): withdraw an amount of fluid from a vial into the barrel of a syringe – drug interaction a reaction between drugs which may decrease or increase the desired effect of the drugs – drug register a book where nurses record and sign for the number of controlled drugs used in each ward or unit expiry date the date after which the medication or IV fluid may not be therapeutic- identity bracelet A plastic wristband which records patient information and is worn whilst the patient is in hospital for identification, also called patient armband – INR International Normalised Ratio; a system which reports the results of blood clotting tests and is used when patients take anti-coagulant medication – IM/IMI Intramuscular injection; an injection which is given into the muscle liver disease a disease which decreases liver function- mane in the morning- metabolism chemical process in the body which breaks down substances to make energy – nocte at night- orally by mouth- over-the-counter(OTC) medication: medication which can be bought at a pharmacy without a prescription – po per os; by mouth – route the manner which a drug enters the body e.g. oral, rectal, IV

self-medication to administer medication to oneself without a doctor’s prescription or advice

side effects unwanted effects of a medication- subcutaneous under the skin

UNIT 8: ambulation walking – anaesthesia a drug which causes the loss of the ability to feel pain – anticoagulant a substance that prevents the clotting of blood – anti-embolicstockings: stockings which prevent the formation of DVT, also called TED (Thrombo-Embolism Deterrent) stockings – antiseptic wash liquid soap which inhibits the growth of micro-organisms – appendicectomy surgical removal of the appendix – blood clot a collection of fibrin, platelets, red blood cells, and white blood cells bowel prep preoperative evacuation of the contents of the bowel using laxatives and/or enemas – cholecystectomy surgical removal of the gallbladder – clear fluids any transparent fluids e.g. apple juice, water, black tea or coffee – coagulation the process of changing from a liquid to a gel or solid state by a series of chemical reactions; often used to describe the formation of a blood clot – colonoscopy inspection of the colon using an endoscope which is inserted through the rectum – consent form a legal document which is signed by patients to give consent for a procedure or operation.- DVT deep vein thromboses; formation of a blood clot in the deep veins usually those in the legs – drain a tube used to remove blood or other fluids from a wound – embolism sudden blocking of an artery by an embolus – embolus a blood clot which breaks off the wall of the blood vessel and starts to move in the circulatory system. – endoscope instrument with either a rigid or flexible tube which is used to view internal objects, take a photograph, take biopsies and remove foreign objects – heparin a substance found in the liver which slows the blood clotting – heparin sodium is an injectable anticoagulant used to prevent DVTs- keyhole surgery a surgical technique which uses small incisions in the abdomen to perform surgery, also called laparoscopic surgery or minimally invasive surgery laparoscope a telescopic instrument, that is usually connected to a video camera, fibre optic cable and cold light source so that the operation area can be viewed – lock-out time the time programmed into a PCA patient overdose – Nil By Mouth(NBM): no food or fluids to be taken by mouth – orthopaedic the correction of abnormal bone structures – pre-med a medication given to relax the pre-operative patient – to prep a patient to prepare a patient for a procedure or operation- PE pulmonary embolism; a condition which is caused by emboli travelling through the blood circulation to the lungs and blocking a pulmonary artery – Venodilation: stretching of the veins – to void to empty the bladder – warfarin oral anticoagulant medication

UNIT 10: carotid artery one of two arteries which carry blood to the brain – cerebralhemisphere: one of the two structures which make up the largest part of the brain – CVA cerebrovascular accident; damage to brain function caused by obstruction to blood flow to the brain, also called stroke – Circle of Willis a ring of arteries at the base of the brain from which other arteries branch out – commode a chair with a bed pan under the seat- continent able to control bladder and/or bowels – privacy laws (data protection): laws which protect a person’s right to have personal information kept in a confidential manner – defecation to eliminate faeces from the bowels – dosette box a plastic container with compartments holding up to one week’s supply of tablets or capsules – dysarthria difficulty in articulating words because of impairment of the muscles in the mouth and tongue – dysphagia difficulty swallowing- dysphasia impairment of speech and comprehension- emotional lability changeable emotional state- expected date of discharge (EDD): the date it is anticipated that a patient can leave hospital- haemorrhagicstroke: stroke caused by a haemorrhage or bleeding in the brain- hemiparesis weakness on one side of the body- hemiplegia paralysis on one side of the body- incontinent unable to control bladder and/or bowels