Urinalysis: the process of analysing urine using physical or chemical test Urine: the fluid which is excreted by the kidneys Urinal: also called bottle; used by male patients to pass urine into Bed pan: a toileting receptacle which is used by bed-bound patients Renal: relating to the kidneys PH: the measurement of how acidic or alkaline a solution is Proteinuria: protein in the urine, also called albuminuria Haematuria: blood in the urine Specimen: a simple, usually of urine or blood Oedema: excessive accumulation of liquid in the tissues Anuria: no urine output Nephrons: filtering units of the kidney Oliguria: low urine output
tab : solid medication, also called a pill cap.: gelatin-coated medication mg: milligram – unit of mass which is 1/1000 of a gram mcg: microgram – unit of mass which is 1/1000 of a milligram ml: milliliter – unit of volume which is 1/1000 of a litre po: from the latin per os –by mouth sc: injection given into the subcutaneous layer of the skin IM: injection given into the muscle mane: in the morning nocte: at night

Nosocomial: contracted in hospital Phlebitis: inflammation of the veinInfiltration: when fluid leaks into surrounding tissues; in nursing jargon: tissued Staph: staphylococci bacteria – types of microbes usually found on the skin IV giving set: trubing which is spikedinto the infusion bag and connected to the IV cannula; also called an IV administration set Erythema: redness of the skin which can indicate infection Aseptic technique: no touch method used to avoid contamination Resite an IV cannula: replace it in a different vein Positional: describes an IV line which stops running because the line becomes blocked off due to patient movement. IV: Intravenous IVC: (IV) cànula K: Potassium N/S: Normal Saline IV Abs: Intravenous antibiòtics KCI: Potassium chloride MMOLS: Millimols PICC: Peripherally InsertedCentral Catheter KVO: Keep the vein open

Thrombus:solid mass which forms in blood vessels; also called a blood clot Anti-embolic:stops an embolus from formin DVT:deep vein thrombosis Anticoagulant:usually refers to a medication which inhibits the formation of thromboses Coagulation: the process of blood cloatting Gallbladder:abdominal organ which stores bile Laparoscope:surgical instrument which is inserted into the abdomen to visualise the abdominal òrgans Anaesthetic:drug which blocks pain and other sensations before an operation is performed PCA:Patient-controlled analgèsia Overdose:taking excess amounts of medication with serious health consequences Lock-out time:safety mesure which prevents patients from continually obtaining analgesia by pressing a patient-control button Keyhole surgery:minimally invasive surgery performed with the use of a laparoscope, using small incisoins or surgical cuts Venodilatation:streaching or widening of a vein Embolus:a blood clot which breaks off and moves freely along a blood vessel Embolism:the condition which is caused when a blood clot blocks blood flow Venous stasis the pooling of blood in the veïns

A&E: Accident and Emergency RTA:road traffic accident GCS:Glasgow Coma Scale: records the conscious state of a patient Neuro obs.:observations which assess neurological function and include a GCS assessment Oxygen sats/ SaO2:measure of the amount of oxygen which is loaded or saturated into the red blood cells as they pass through the lungs NAD:Non adhesive dressing Prn:from the latin pro re nata – take whenever required Nociceptor: A receptor which detects painful stimuli Cutaneous: relating to the skin Visceral: referring to the internal organs of the bodyIncision: a cut into the skin; often refers to a surgical cutLocalised pain: pain which is felt around the site of an injuryReferred pain: pain which is felt in a part of the body away from the injury sitePain threshold: level of stimulation required before pain felt Pain tolerance: the most pain which a person can put up with NSAIDs: non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs; also called non-steroidals Opioids: drugs which produce a morphine-like effect Endorphins: opiate proteins with pain-relieving properties which occur naturally in the brain Anti-pyretic: a medication which brings down a high temperature Background drug: a drug used to support the main analgesic Multimodal: treatment which combines several types of pain management Breakthrough dose: medication which is given in between doses where more pain relief is needed

Hemisphere: one of the 2 regions of the brain; hemi means half Carotid artery: either of the two arteries which supply blood to the brain Circle of Willis: area underneath the brain where the cerebral arteries are linked Ischaemia: inadequate blood supply caused by a blockage in the blood vessel; isch means deficiency CVA: cerebrovascular accident, or stroke. Ischaemic stroke: type of stroke caused when a thrombus blocks the carotid artery, resulting in ischaemia and tissue necrosis; the most common type of stroke. Haemorrhagic stroke: type of stroke caused when a blood vessel bursts causing blood to leak into the brain: causes around 1/5 of strokes Hemiparesis: weakness on one side of the body Hemiplegia: paralysis on one side of the body Hemianopia: defective vision on one half of the body leads to neglect of one side of the body Aphasia: inhability to communicate Dysphasia: difficulty expressing what you are thinking Dysphagia: difficulty swallowing food or fluids Dysarthria: motor speech impairment which affects the ability to form words clearly Emotional lability: inappropriate emotional responses, for example laughing when the intention is to cry. cerebral hemisphere one of the two structures which make up the largest part of the brain EDD: expected date of discharge Fasteners: devices which joint 2 pieces of clothing together; for example, buttons Mechanical transferring aids: mechanical devices used to transfer disabled patients ; for example, hoists or sit-to-stand lifters Parenteral: administered in any other form but orally, for example by injection or through a feeding tuve. Continent: having control of bladder and bowel

Supervision: watching a patient to ensure an action is performed safely Defecation: the act of passing faeces Incontinent: not having control of bladder and bowel Urination: the act of passing urine; also called micturition