Kecia Littlejohn

Which of these organisms would have the best chance of becoming part of the fossil record? Fish

As the temperature of lava increases, ____.its viscosity decreases

Which of the following must be true for a fossil organism to be useful as an index fossil?all of the above

In what type of rocks are most fossils found? sedimentary rocks

In diagram A of Figure 11-2, where would the oldest rock layers be located? at C

Before being engulfed, matter that is pulled into a black hole should become very hot and emit ____.X-rays

7 Stars of which color have the coolest surface temperature?red

At divergent plate boundaries in the ocean, magma rises and melts because of ____.a decrease in pressure

What event may have triggered the great Paleozoic extinction? climatic change

Most intraplate volcanic activity occurs where ____ Hot mantle plumes rise toward the surface within a plate

Which of the following causes earthquakes?elastic rebound

Jupiter’s Great Red Spot is believed to be a ____. Cyclonic storm

Which of the following plays a major part in determining the form of a volcano? magma composition

Which main-sequence stars are the least massive? Red

The radiometric date of a metamorphic rock most likely represents when the rock was ____. heated during metamorphism

The most obvious difference between the terrestrial and the Jovian planets is ____. Size

The age of the rocks in the ocean basins was determined by ____.ocean drilling

Which of the following lists includes the major types of mountains? folded, fault-block, volcanic

Wegener’s idea that tidal forces might cause continental drift was shown to be impossible when it was ____. shown that the tidal forces needed to move continents would stop Earth’s rotation

In the early Paleozoic, life was restricted to the ____. Seas

The first accurate measurement of the size of Earth was made by ____.Eratosthenes

A lens-shaped intrusive igneous mass close to Earth’s surface is called a ____.laccolith

The mass of a star can be determined by studying ____.binary star systems

Which of the following factors affects the melting point of rock? all of the above
During the period that the moon’s phases are changing from new to full, the moon is ____.waxing

Which of the following is currently responsible for shaping Mars’ surface? Wind

In areas where unconsolidated sediments are saturated with water, earthquakes can turn stable soil into a fluid through a process called ____.liquefaction

Most of the information about Earth’s interior was obtained by studying ____. earthquake waves

According to the ancients, the stars traveled around Earth on the transparent, hollow ____. celestial sphere

The formation of the Hawaiian Islands is associated with plate boundary of any kind
What instrument records earthquake waves? Seismograph

Which of Jupiter’s moons is volcanically active? Io
Structures that form from the cooling and hardening of magma beneath Earth’s surface are ____. Plutons
Which seismic waves travel most rapidly?P waves

Evidence about ancient climates indicates that ____ .glacial ice once covered much of what is now India and Australia

Which color has the most energetic photons? Violet

All changes in the original shape and/or size of a rock body are called ____.deformation

Which of the following is a geographic example of a transform fault boundary?the San Andreas Fault

What likely contributed to the extinction that marks the end of the Mesozoic Era?a meteorite collision

Magma forms when solid rock in the crust and upper mantle ____.melts

Which animals did NOT survive the Mesozoic extinction? Dinosaurs

One group of reptiles, characterized by the fossil Archaeopteryx, led to the evolution of ____.Birds

Petrified wood is an example of what type of fossil? altered remains

What hypothesis states that the continents were once joined to form a single supercontinent? continental drift

Major earthquakes are sometimes preceded by smaller earthquakes called ____. Foreshocks

Tensional stresses commonly cause which of the following? normal faults

The product of nuclear fusion is ____. Helium

Which of the following is used in an attempt to make short-range predictions of when earthquakes will occur? strain in rocks near faults

When did abundant fossil evidence appear in the geologic record? 540 million years ago

Which of the following is NOT a major factor that influences the strength of a rock? age of rock

The Black Hills of South Dakota were formed by what type of orogenesis? Upwarping

The igneous activity in Yellowstone National Park is associated with what tectonic setting? intraplate setting

The footprints of a dinosaur are an example of what type of fossil? trace fossil

What characteristic distinguishes Neptune from the other planets? Neptune is extremely windy.

Which of the following is important if an organism is to become a fossil?rapid burial and hard parts

A break that separates older metamorphic rocks from younger sedimentary rocks immediately above them is a type of unconformity called a(n) ____. Nonconformity

An unconformity is a(n) ____. gap in the rock record

Which color has the longest wavelength? Red

The atmosphere of Venus is composed primarily of ____. carbon dioxide
Earth’s axis slowly but continuously points in different directions, a move

ment known as ____.Precession

The Hawaiian Islands are associated with what type of volcanism? intraplate volcanism

The distance between a seismic station and the earthquake epicenter is determined from the ____. arrival times of P and S waves

Which period makes up nearly all of the Cenozoic Era? Tertiary

Continental volcanic arcs are associated with what type of plate boundary? convergent oceanic-continental boundary

Which statement best explains why the moon has more craters than Earth? Weathering and erosion do not occur on the moon.

The hypothesis that explains the release of energy during an earthquake is called the elastic rebound hypothesis.

Why did amphibians diversify so rapidly during the late Paleozoic? They had little competition from other land dwellers.

Which magnitude would be associated with the brightest star? –5

What type of volcano is built almost entirely from ejected lava fragments? cinder cone
Mammals became dominant only after ____. dinosaurs became extinct

The radiometric dating of an igneous rock provides ____. a date for when the rock formed

Which of the following factors helps determine whether a volcanic eruption will be violent or relatively quiet? all of the above

Compressional stresses can result in the formation of ____.thrust faults

Which of the following is an example of mountains formed as a result of ocean-ocean convergence? the mountains of Japan

Which planet has a dense carbon dioxide atmosphere and high surface temperatures?Venus

What kind of plate boundary occurs where two plates grind past each other without destroying or producing lithosphere? transform fault boundary

An example of folded mountains can be seen in ____. the Alps in Europe

Which astronomer spent 20 years plotting the positions of the planets? Brahe

What type of mountains are produced by ocean-ocean convergence?mainly volcanic mountains
Sedimentary rocks record past geological events and ____.changing life forms of the past

Which seismic waves compress and expand rocks in the direction the waves travel?P waves

What happened to all the continents by the close of the Paleozoic? They fused into Pangaea.

Which planet shows evidence of water erosion? Mars

Deformation in which the object returns to its original shape and size after the stress is removed is called ____.elastic deformation

Which planet has a greater mass than the combined mass of all the remaining planets and their moons?Jupiter

What is the shape of a planet’s orbit? Elliptical

Which of the following is proportionally more abundant on terrestrial planets than on Jovian planets? silicate minerals