1.Cati: Computers have replaced questionnaire in telephone interviews. Phone Interviews guided by a questionnaire displayed on the screen of a computer. The interviewer records answers via the keyboard entering numbers pre-coded responses displayed on the screen. Advantages of cati: the interviewer is more free, data processing is eliminated, less costs and erros, the analysis at the final…

2.Carrying out a interview:

-Before the interview begins: the interviewer should give an indication of: how long it is expected to take ,mention that all that is said will be kept confidential , that there will be no attempt to sell anything.

The interviewer must; always be assumptive and confident, create trust, respondents don’t feel like they are being singles out unfairly. The difficulties can be;-T he person is always out or does not have the time – The respondent is survey weary (tired) -The ratio between the # of phone numbers dialed & the # of interviews achieved will vary – Short survey of the general public with a good list it may be possible to achieve 1 interview for every 5 dialed calls.- In a B2B survey it is likely that at least 20 dialed numbers must be called to achieve 1 interview.

-The interview: In most cases once respondents have started the interview see it through to completion. The crucial requirement of any interview is to know the questionnaire thoroughly (in depth).Although, the questionnaire is a script show we are listening and are interested. The body language of the voice very important given there is nothing else to create rapport.

-The close: By the time the interview is finished a relationship will have been created with the respondent. Respondents deserve to be thanked for their time and effort. It may be appropriate to ask permission to call again to clarify any of the answers. (This is more important in business-to-business interviews.)

3.Limitations of telephone interviews: -We need a respondent to see something. -Explanation of a concept that is too lengthy to read out. -Picture of a new product.-Long list of factors that could influence the respondent’s decision to choose a product (more than five or six factors on a list). it is difficult for the respondent to hold them in their mind. -Long list of factors Researchers attempt to overcome this problem by ‘recruiting to web’.-During the phone call respondents are given a web address to visit view the material.

-Susteptible to distracciones -Telephone interview can’t be no trusted as in Japan.


1.When to use it: -Perfect tool for the DIY researcher. -Preferred method if they have difficulty finding the time to get to the phone or if they value privacy in their responses. -Presents a chance to use pictorial explanations – Useful means of collecting data from more than one respondent in a household or company.

-People can take their time.

2.Disavantages: -Generate low and uncertain response rates if the audience is not highly engaged or required to complete by law-10% – Certain will not know unless we carry out control checks.

3.Principles of designing self questionnaires:

-The importance of the introductory letter: so important. Sets the scene why research is being carried out & plants the hook that encourages the response. Assourance about confidentiality and give clear instructions.

-Deciding questions: what questions need to be answered, need careful scripting and formatting.

-Questions types, wording and sequencing: Golden rule is think from pint of view f the respondent to do better questions, not complicated or opened questions or free ranging (beacuse its good)

-Enhancing the appearance of the questionnaire: an attractive layout will attract more, use cool and graphics.

4.Good practicase in self-competition: -Pre-testing and piloting postal surveys-Project management and administration-planning, costing, timetabling.

5.Bosting réponse rates: interest (5/50), keeping it brief, advanced publicity, second mailings , incentives


1.The growth: online panels..

2.Ad/disadvantages: -Most people probably seek to avoid invitations-Researchers know approximately how long it should take. -Responses can be spotted (dirty)-Flatilinning (giving the same response).

3.Online surveys using market research advantages:-Responses of high quality-They are relatively inexpensive-Eliminates interviewer bias -In an online survey the respondent can look over a long list of points-Do not requiere huge resources to carry put -Online panel organisation can design with large resources.

4.Online focus groups: Chat room on a website where a moderator brings together a scattered audience. The audience would be recruited either by telephone or online and requested to join the online focus group on a given date. Usually, two days are set aside for the discussion .Other types: online focus groups in real time. 90-minute(10 each). Allows polls.


1.Data analysis of open-ended questions: each response to such a question is unique. The responses given by just nine respondents are shown below the question.With only nine responses it is easy to read through them all and make some generalizations. With say 100 respondents would be harder. The process of categorizing individual responses to open-ended questions is called CODING and the list of codes is a CODE FRAME. As can be seen in the example an individual respondent (3) may give a response that falls in two groups. It may be more useful to group these in different ways for example: high price issues + depreciation.There is no absolutely right or wrong approach it all depends on what the information is to be used for.Producing the most appropriate coding frame requires skill and a holistic* understanding of the project. It is a job for the researcher in charge of the project and should not be left to the data preparation team as they may not be aware of all the objectives of the study. Note: that the column does not total 100 % because of multi-response some respondents have given reasons for not intending to buy that fall in two or more code categories. Tables: showing this type of coded responses to open-ended questions can also include cross-analyses. The coding of open-ended questions in market research is quite a problematical activity. The coding frame itself may be inappropriate and produce a data analysis output that leads to misinterpretation and possibly wrong conclusions. Open-ended questions require coding which is very labour-intensive (therefore costly) and highly judgemental. This type of problem does not exist with closed questions. The researcher should think very carefully at the questionnaire design stage, whether open-ended questions are really needed. It is generally best to keep open-ended questions to an absolute minimum.