Three major events of Liberalism: 1) 1789 French Revolution and Ratification of American Constitution, 2) 1848 Revolutions in Europe (starting in France) meaning the end of Absolutism, 3) 1859 JS Mill did a publication called on liberty in which Mill attempts to establish standards for the relationship between authority and liberty. He emphasizes the importance of individuality which he conceived as a prerequisite to the higher pleasures. Mill criticizes the errors of past attempts to defend individuality where, for example, democratic ideals resulted in the “tyranny of the majority”.

The paradox of Liberalism is that its triumph occurs when the triumph of the modern states also occurs. Liberalism noticed that for it to rise, it had to be helped by the modern state. Liberalism and modern state had both a common enemy: regionalism and localism (el ejemplo de las 14 taxes del pescado de Calais a Paris)

Three economies in Liberalism: 1) Moral: human relationship with each other, so this is the national economy, 2) Political: how the government affects the national economy, 3) International: international trade, and terms of trade.

Mechanical solidarity is the theory of the French social scientist Émile Durkheim  “THE DIVISION OF LABOUR IN SOCIETY”1893 in which he claims there is something called social solidarity that puts people together (This is more or less advanced capitalism) These common values and beliefs constitute a “collective conscience” that works internally in individual members to cause them to cooperate.(father of sociology).These societies typical of pre-modern societies, more emotionally driven, tended to be small, simpler societies and rural villages. We didn’t see much division of labour between people.

These societies are based on resemblances, segmental types, clan and territorial based, with little interdependence because social bonds are relatively weak, fewer people and not intense on materialistic values, rather morals.

In these types of societies, there is repression and established rules based on morals and sentiments rather than ethics. They are based on resemblances (clan and territorially based).

They apply repressive sanctions by the government, a today’s example is Arabia Saudi, and its normative, the collective authority is absolute (religion, family, social class).

This collective conscience is very important, and intense, and very determined since you are told what to do because collective authority is absolute. There is also high volume of guilt from religion and family.

Other example we can see are nationalists who want to go back to the old times, or in Spain, when you travel south, you find poorer, larger families, people believe in God, you are condemned to love your family, there is no individualism. Women rule the house and that is their job.  The disadvantage of these societies is that you are less free, and independent, however, you feel part of something, like nationalists, feeling part of a bigger group makes you feel safer and less alone.

Organic solidarity is the social integration that arises out of the need of individuals for one another’s services. In a society characterized by organic solidarity, there is a relatively greater division of labour (specialization), with individuals functioning much like interdependent but differentiated organs of a living body.  

It is characteristic of modern and postmodern societies. It allows for more individualism. These types of societies are based on restitutive sanctions, which means that people are sent to prison to become a better persona and to readapt to society (democratic states) there is prevalence of cooperation of law (civil, commercial, procedural, administrative and constitutional).

Low volume, intensity, and determinateness; more room for individual initiative and reflection.  More materialistic. A modern state makes redistribution possible.

There is an increasing secular human oriented ideology, it gives supreme value to individual dignity and human rights. Equality of opportunity, work ethic and social justice are common values of organic solidarity. high volume of population + high material and moral density

Increasingly secular, human-oriented (concerned for human interests and open to discussion); attaching supreme value to individual dignity, equality of opportunity, work ethic, and social justice; abstract and general.  Any fundamentalist tries to escape from this and go back to some certainties. 

We rehabilitate in prisons, no repressive. People are obsessed with punishment. With Liberalism men believe men is good by nature. Justice is not vendetta.