What’s the difference between persuasion and manipulation? Persuasion takes place when the sender of the message tries to take advantage of the ignorance of the receiver in order to shape his or her perception.  Persuasion distinguishes between arguments and conclusions Does not use an emotional approach  Does not discredit other sources by attacking them With manipulation, the intellectual freedom of the receiver is not respected, and at the end of the process the receiver does not have the freedom to judge reality.  Uses harmful stereotypes  Tries to establish a common enemy to blame for everything  Only selects facts that are beneficial for them 2. What is Ecology in PR according to Scott Cutlip and Allen Center?  In PR, ecology is a concept that says in order to prosper and endure, all organizations must accept the public responsibility imposed by an increasingly independent society, communicate despite barriers and achieve integration in communities that they were created to serve. 3. What’s the concept of publics according to Grunig? And how does his concept differ from Bernays’?  According to Grunig, public are a group of people affected by organizational behavior and groups of people that affect organizational behavior.  People can change the way they think/act about a company. Grunig says you cannot read your audiences the same way overtime because people change.  Believes the average person and PR professionals share equal intellectual capacities.  Bernays believe in the contrary. He believes in the limited intellectually public. 4. What are the 5 stages of the communication continuum? Where would corporate communication be? Where would propaganda be? DIALOGUE – is the perfect condition of communication which implies a 2 way communication model. We have a sender and a receiver. The contents can be facts, opinions or judgements. It is an exchange of information. It is active and has a balance (the sender and the receiver are on the same level). It’s main goals are beauty and justice. EDUCATION – the sender tries to remedee the ignorance of their recipient on a specific balance. We have an unbalance (at least at the beginning), which means that the recipient, at the end of the process, is supposed to build his own criteria on the matter. PERSUASION – the sender works on the ignorance, passiveness or neutrality of the recipient about one specific topic. The difference between education and persuasion is that at the end the sender tries to make the recipient share its own criteria to judge the reality. The recipient is aware that he is being persuaded and he’s free to change his opinion. (the objectivity starts to fall) MANIPULATION – the balance is tilted towards the sender, who persuades his own interests and it’s not going to respect the intellectual freedom of the recipient (his not going to let you think). This means that at the end of the process the recipient is not going to be able to judge the reality, and his not going to be aware of it.  IMPOSITION – No communication. It doesn’t exist because the message is imposed. We don’t have an exchange and the rules of the communication are broken. No communicative relationship between the sender and the receiver (e.g.: violence, blackmail). Propaganda would be somewhere in-between the lines of persuasion and manipulation.  Corporate comm. is in dialogue and persuasion but not manipulation because it still allows the receiver to have the freedom to judge reality. 5. Name 5 major PR consultancies. 1.MSL Group  2.Edelman  3.Ogilvy 4.Hill & Knowlton 5.Blue Focus  6.Ketchum  6. According to purpose and the nature of communication, which section of the model do political parties practice nowadays, especially during election periods? During elections, political parties practice the two-way asymmetrical model. Their purpose is scientific persuasion, and their nature of communication is two-way, imbalanced effects. They research their audience in order to learn more about the behavior of the public. Using this information, political parties are trying to change the public opinion/perception by persuasion. Bernays. 7. There are difference criteria to determine types of propaganda, according to the object, what kind of propaganda can we see in the disney shorts? In the Disney shorts we saw in class, it’s easy to tell that the producers were using War Propaganda. War Propaganda (A.K.A. psychological warfare) – all informative actions by the estate are to promote patriotism or hate towards enemies among soldiers and public opinion. In all 3 of the short videos, the common theme was to promote patriotism. In the first two we saw, Donald Duck in Nazi Land and Education for Death, viewers were persuaded to find the ideologies of the enemy (Nazi Germany) appalling and to mold the viewers perception. Diferencias entre public relations and advertising: Publicity is the unpaid dissemination of facts/ideas/news about a product, service, brand or person of various media. It characteristics are: uncontrolled method of placing messages in the media. Generally short-term focused. Negative as well as positive. Advantages: more credible than advertising. Endorsed bythe medium in which it appears. High news value. Vehicles: New releases. Press conferences. Special events and stunts. Captioned photos. Feature articles. Similiarities: both seek to shape perceptions and influence public opinion, use mass media and are directed at specific audience.  The six elements of storytelling: 1. Setting as the time and location in which the story takes place. 2. Characters: main character and other characters, antagonist. 3. Plot: the sequence of events that connect the audience to the protagonist and his goals. 4. Conflict: it is what drives the story. If you don’t have a conflict you don’t have a story. It creates tension and suspense. 5. Theme. 6. Narrative arc: setup, rising tension, climax and resolution.PR activities Employee communication / internal relations “Internal relations are the specialized part of corporate public relations that builds and maintains a mutual beneficial relationship between managers and the employees on whom an organization’s success depends”. Public Affairs “Public affairs is the specialized part of public relations that builds and maintains organizational relationships with governmental agencies and community stakeholder groups to influence public policy”. Lobbying “Lobbying is the specialized part of public relations that builds and maintains relations with government and political actors, primarily to influence legislation”. Crisis management “Crisis management is the public relations specialty that helps organizations strategically respond to negative situations and to dialog with stakeholders affected by perceived and actual consequences of crises”. Investor relations “Investor relations is the specialized part of corporate public relations that builds and maintains mutual beneficial relationships with shareholders and others in the financial community to maximize market value”. Development / Non-profit “Development is the specialized part of public relations in nonprofit organizations that builds and maintains relationships with donors, volunteers and members to secure financial and volunteer support”.

Legitimacy gap: it represents the perceived difference between an organization’s performance and a society’s expectations for right proper performance. How a company acts in society and how the society thinks it should perform. This gap happens when there is a difference between the two. Can be small or huge. If you do something that is against the values or the mission of the company this gap also occurs.