History of spain economy. Taylorism, fordism, toyotism.

DESAMORTIZACIÓN: Seizure and expropriation of private property by the Government. The seizure in Spain refers to a series of laws that allowed the sale of goods and property belonging to ‘dead hand’, or entities that could not sell like the church, the crown, the nobility or the municipalities. The sale of rural and urban areas, much of the heritage of the church and property of civil insitutions, public auctions throughout the nineteenth century the great process are repossessing.
DUMPING (AND TYPES): selling items below cost, to eliminate surplus, hurt competitors or gain market share. The word is now generally used only in the context of international trade law,where dumping is defined as the act of manufacturer in one country exporting a product to another country at a price which is either below the price it charges in its home market or is below its costs of production.
VERTICAL VERSUS HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION OF THE FIRM: Horizontal integration is the process of merging similar industries, industries that produce similar products. Horizontal integration would include tactics like buying competing companies that produce the same goods as you do. Vertical integration is the process of buying out suppliers of that particular industry. For example, a steel company would have an advantage over competitors by vertical integration if that company bought out places like coal fields or iron mines, places that competing steel companies rely on to make their steel. This would let you control the raw materials and transportation systems. The main difference is that horizontal integration buys the competing companies while vertical integration aims at the raw material sources necessary to produce that product.
LEVELS OF INTEGRATION IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE: There are varying levels of economic integration, including preferential trade agreements (PTA), free trade areas (FTA), customs unions, common markets and economic and monetary unions. The more integrated the economies become, the fewer trade barriers exist and the more economic and political coordination there is between the member countries.
ECONOMIES OF SCALE: In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that an enterprise obtains due to expansion. There are factors that cause a producer’s average cost per unit to fall as the scale of output is increased. “Economies of scale” is a long run concept and refers to reductions in unit cost as the size of a facility and the usage levels of other inputs increase.
THE MOST-FAVOURED NATION CLAUSE: provision in a commercial treaty binding the signatories to extend trading benefits equal to those accorded any third state, The clause ensures equal commercial opportunities, specially concerning import duties and freedom of investment.In the late 19th century and early 20th century unilateral MFM clauses were imposed on Asian nations by the more powerful western countries like china or Vietnam.
SAFETY VALVE (TURNER THEORY): thesis is the assertion that the frontier, as a place of opportunity and escape defused social discontent in America.“So long as free land exists, the opportunity for competency exists, and economic power secures political power” The safety valve theory was a theory about how to deal with unemployment.Given the concentration of immigrants (and population) on the Eastern coast, it was hyphothesized that making free land available in the West, would relieve the pressure for employment in the East.
TAYLORISM:Production efficiency methodology that breaks every action, job, or task into small and simple segments which can be easily analyzed and taught. Introduced in the early 20th century, Taylorism aims to achieve maximum job fragmentation to minimize skill requirements and job learning time, separates execution of work from workplanning, separates direct labor from indirect labor replaces rule of thumb productivity estimates with precise measurements, introduces time and motion study for optimum job performance, cost accounting, tool and work station design, and makes possible paymentby-result method of wage determination
FORDISM: the eponymous manufacturing system designed to spew out standardized, low-cost goods and afford its workers decent enough wages to buy them. Manufacturing philosophy that aims to achieve higher productivity by standardizing the output, using conveyor assembly lines, and breaking the work into small de-skilled tasks. Whereas Taylorism (on which Fordism is based) seeks machine and worker efficiency, Fordism seeks to combine them as one unit, and emphasizes minimization of costs instead of maximization of profit. Named after its famous proponent, the US automobile pioneer Henry Ford (1863-1947).
TOYOTISM: Totyotism (or Toyota-ism) is the term often used, by analogy with Fordism and Taylorism, is an integrated socio-technical system, developed by Toyota, that comprises its management philosophy and practices. The TPS organizes manufacturing and logistics for the automobile manufacturer, including interaction with suppliers and customers. The system is a major precursor of the more generic “lean manufacturing.” Taiichi Ohno, Shigeo Shingo and Eiji Toyoda developed the system between 1948 and 1975.[1]Originally called “just-in-time production,. Method of industrial management based on assembly-line production of cheap, uniform commodities in high volume.
Cartels: A cartel is a formal agreement among competing firms. It is a formal organization where there is a small number of sellers and usually involve homogeneous products. Cartel members may agree on such matters as price fixing, total industry output, market shares, allocation of customers, allocation of territories, bid rigging, establishment of common sales agencies, and the division of profits or combination of these. The aim of such collusion (also called the cartel agreement) is to increase individual members’ profits by reducing competition.One can distinguish private cartels from public cartels. In the public cartel a government is involved to enforce the cartel agreement, and the government’s sovereignty shields such cartels from legal actions. Inversely, private cartels are subject to legal liability under the antitrust laws now found in nearly every nation of the world. Furthermore, the purpose of private cartels is to benefit only those individuals who constitute it, public cartels, in theory, work to pass on benefits to the populace as a whole