Omlecs:First ppl of Latin America,big helmets,glyphs&codex,Popol vuh(creation story)Mayans:technology,had city states in Yucatan peninsula,ball courts,Cenotes(holes for sacrifice)Aztecs:Big civilization, farmers&one collective leader,human sacrifice, middle region,violence,Huitzilpochtli(god which they believed would satisfy&protect them if human sacrifice,keep moving until they find bird),takes over Toltecs(capital:Teotihuacan),Quetzalcoatl/Topilzin(god who had white beard, believed would come back in woodcraft),believed that human blood=good for farming,Triple Alliance(texcoco&tlacopan),Tenochtitlan(capital),texcoco(river that capital was founded),Tlateloco(marketplace),Chinampas(raised gardens),Montezuma II(King of the Aztecs at the time or Cortes He was too kind to the Spanish but he attacked the Spaniards using the person El verado He was killed because he tried to help Spanish ppl to leave,The Aztecs first worked for local rulers bc they were a group of nomads who were poor,Aztecs built three causeways over water&land to connect Tenochtitlan to mainland,Aztecs built calendar in main ceremonial plaza to keep track of religious ceremonies/festivals,Montezuma II reduced number of officials bc didn’t want them to rebelHermano Cortes:Spaniard in Aztec,burned all ships,was not at all worried about his authority because he had permission from Spain,Velaquez(gave Cortes power),Vela Cruz(Cortes took over),Dona Marina(translator),La Nose Triste(sad night where spaniards got massacred leaving Aztec)Francisco Bazaar(led conquistadors to south&found Incas on the Andes)Atahualpa(Incan king, came unarmed when meeting conquistadors),Pizzaro(takes over the Incans using small number of ppl in army,wanted to convert Incans into christians, massacre&surprise attack on Incans, capture&slaughter Atahualpa)Allyu(extended family),Mita(all had to work certain amount),Incans divided their land into cities to make it managableReasons for New world’s loss:Geography&shape of continent,Spanish Conquistadors had guns&rapiers,No horses(only llamas),things could easily spread east to west, but not north to south,europeans lived with the domestic animals and there has been many epidemics throughout Europe, so they have become more resistant to the diseases such as small pox. Number of natural immunity were higher for the Europeans,europeans won not bc of personal qualities but they were accidental conquerers who were first to get guns, germs&steel.Grand/columbian exchange:1.plants-potatos(important bc could resist cold temperatures,grow in thin soil, greatly impacted Ireland)&maize(essential to Central America bc could be dried&stored,easily transported)&sugarcane(largest cash crop, flourished in New world bc of plantations)2.Animals-new world only had dogs&llamas,columbus brought pigs(reproduce quickly and was great for meat),horses(used in battles&mode of transportation),sheep3.Diseases-Small pox(most deadly,killed 50-90% of indigenous ppl),measles,malaria,yellow fever,influenza,chicken pox,some diseases also spread to New world.Atlantic Slave trade:Slavery in Africa-treated better than the European system,Africans sold slaves at first to them because they did not know such conditions,Why Africa?Europeans were going to make money with gold and silver but eventually they ran out. Second,they enslaved Native Americans and made them farm making cash crops. Encomiendas(NativeAmerican slave plantations)1. Africans had some immunity to European diseases. 2. Many Africans were farmers and were effective. 3. Many of the Africans lived in the Equator and therefore they were used to hot weathers. 4. Native Americans were able to escape because they were used to the land, but Africans didn’t.

Atlantic Slave Trade:Vasvo da Gama(first one to sell slaves/caused destruction)Caravels(type of ship used to travel through)A few at first, but at the end of the 1500s, it was turning into 10,000 slaves,Spain&Portugal(earliest perpretraders)Triangular Trade:Europe to Africa,Africa to the New World.Europe buys slaves from Africa.Europeans give out goods&money.Slaves were taken to the New World through the middle passage(took about 60 days,in the caraval not enough space, oxygen,humiliating.Olaudah Equitano (wrote his experience in the middle passage)The slaves were traded for the cash crops.The cash crops were taken back to Europe and they were manufactured in the industries.Sometimes some of the cash crops were exchanged to the central american islands.Consequences:1.population declined/families broken up.2.usually the brightest africans were taken bc africans wanted rebellion,that caused them to be industrially/economically behind.3.American colonies grew economically.4.Cultural blending in modern days.Peninsulares(lived in America,born in Spain/Portugal,held prestige),Creoles(Spaniards born in America,not allowed high offices, but had power),Mestizos(European+Native American,farmers,artisans,workers),Mixed race(Mulatto,African+european,did not have legal rights),Grand Blancs(developed in French Revolution,could vote),Petit Blancs(poor artisans, couldn’t vote bc didn’t own 20 slaves,jealus of Grand Blancs&wanted to distinguish themselves from Gen de couleur libres(free ppl of color, same status as petit blancs)Haitian Independence:French side of Hispaniola,slaves outnumbered whites,slaves revolt in 1789 bc they heard rumors that king Louis 16th has signed a document that freed the slaves.Toussaint L’Ouverture(formally enslaved man, taught slaves military tactics, made a deal with Napoleon;if he freed slaves, he would stop French Revolution,eventually got arrested&died bc French found him planning on new revolution),Jean-Jacques Dessalines(Right hand man, rebelled against French&successful)Importance:1.First successful slave revolt/freed all slaves,2.Second country to be independent,3.Stood up for the weak&got ruled by ppl of African descent when other countries failed.Enlightenment:Scientific revolution during/after Renaissance,ppl started to believe in the “reason” and that it could fix everything, which caused them to go against their kings&gain independence.Napoleon couldn’t win against England bc he had bad navy, he tries to isolate England from trading.Portugese says no&while he was on his way and passes Spain, Spain launches guerrilla attacks, eventually Napoleon’s brother rules Spain.South American Independence:1810,starts after Napoleon makes his brother rule. Simon Bolivar(General who made Vensuela’s independence,”George Washington of South America”),Jose de San Martin(Declared Argentinian,Chile,Peru independence and makes Gran Columbia made of Venezuela, Panama, Columbia, Ecuador bc he took over the whole region) Battle of Ayacucho(last major battle of independence, led by Bolivar, defeats Spain for good.Mexican Independence:Padre Miguel Hidargo(Priest from Dolores,rings bell,Grito de Dolores,declares war against Spain),Agustin de Inurebide(defeats padre morelles who was rebelling, but eventually switched sides&gain independence)Brazilian Independence:Colonized by Portuguese,only bloodless revolution, King John&Dom Pedro(King of Portugal who moved to Brazil to not fight with Napoleon, Dom Pedro is his son who ruled Brazil after the Portugese moved back to Portugal)