history

THE LIBERAL IDEOLOGY

LIBERALISM:

Sobereignity belongs to the nation. People governed themselves through representatives

No absolute power>>separation of Powers

Right to vote, representatives were elected through suffrage

Citizens + King must comply with laws (specially the constitution of fundamental law)

All men are equall in the eyes of the law

Freedom of the press is recognized

Economic freedom

Men and women had rights (life, freedom, property)

Separation of the church and the state

ABSOLUTISM:

Sovereignity belongs to the King

Recieves his right to govern from God

King had absolute power and answered only to God

Slogan: “everything for the people, nothing by the people”

The Will of the King is law

Inequality was natural

Three states: nobility, clergy, third state

Ideas were controlled through censorship

Economic life was controlled by the King

People must follow anything the King said or demanded

Throne and altar were linked

Ideological tendencias among liberals:

MODERATE LIBERALS:


Monarchists>>>wanted to keep the King, army and oficial rerligion but believed their power should be restricted by the consitution.

Believed in an electoral system based opn censitary suffrage

RADICAL LIBERALS:

Known in Spain as “evaltados” and then “progresistas”. Some were republicans and democrats because they believed in universal sufrage.

Proposed regime of unlimited freedoms and the suppresion of religious inventions in aspects of civil life.

 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: THE FOUNDING OF THE US

Since the 17th cent.. european emigrantys had settled on the east coast of North America. Some had fled political inestability and religious persecution in their countries of origin.

THE THIRTEEN COLONIES:

The british monarchy organized colonues in 13 areas.


A governor was in charge of each colony, but his power was mostly restricted to military matters. For all other matters          colonial assemblies

INDEPENDANCE AND WAR:



Seven years war (1756-1763)  >>Great Britain vs France


               After British created a large permanente army in America that forced colonies to fund it through new taxes.

               They rebelled: “no taxation without representation” because they had no represenrtatives in the parliament in London.

Revolutionary process began. 1776  >>>delegates from the Thirteen Colonies met in Philadelphia and declarated Independence from Great Britain and George III’s rule.


          Colonies >>> states


          New country  >>>USA


British oppossed  >>>American War of Independence

France + Spain + Netherlands supported colonists to weaken GB


After battles of of Saratonga and Yorktown (won by colonists, George Washington),  >>> Peace of Paris  >>>1783.  Great Britain recognized the new country’s independance.



CONSTITUTION AND DEMOCRACY:


The new state’s delegates met again in PH¡iladelphia and drafted a constitution, appruved in 1787. 1st time >>>the principles were incorporated into a country’s fundamental law. 

>>Key pionts:

US: federal republic, government functions are devided between the capital and the states.



Head of the State >>>president, elected >>>hovie of Representatives every 4 years.

Separation of Powers


Ejecutive >>>president


Legislative >>>congress and senate


Judicial >>>supreme court

Series of amendments

The number of states quickly doubled. The electoral system imposed was universal manhood suffrage.



1829 >>>Andrew Jackson elected president.

    >>Founded Democratic Party(well stablished in the south)

    >>He introduced new democratic reforms

Not all the population had the right to vote (natives, shouthern women, black slaves)

These slaves moved to stated in the North where the believed slavery was repugnant. Therefore; they refused to hand them over to the South.


States of the North wanted to abolish slavery completely, South were opposed.


              >>>American Civil War (1861-1865) >>>North (+ liberal and industrialized), won.



Leadership   >>> Abraham Lincoln  >>>Republican Party, slavery was stablished and all slaves were freed.

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION


Late 18th cent.  >>France was still an absolute monarchy under Louis XVI.

Many people demanded a change in the regime.

1789 factors that triggered the rev.:

Liberal ideas of the enlightment had become popular even amongst nobility and clergy. Absolutism was critisized and people called for the separation of Powers.

Example of the US some French people had tnhought on the side of the colonists in the American W of Ind.

Inequiality before the law. Nobility and clergy didn´t pay taxes, while the middle class did

Economic crisis 7 years´war, France lost Canada and it affected their economy. France had top ay an enormous public debt.

>>>The court did´t reduce it spending on luxuries.

>>>Meanwhile, pop grew a lot and farming production was´t enough for them to eat

Meany propaganda critizised the Old Regime. King and queen were openly criticized and disparaged. + Than 25000 books of grievancel were compiled. Citizens and peasants described their complaints and demands in these books.



PHASES OF THE F.R.:

It marked the transition between the Contemporary Age and the Modern Era (1789-1804)        5 phases:

  • THE ESTATES GENERAL (1789):

The three estates of the real: each one vote but the 3rd estate was much bigger and wanted to vote per person.  This tarted the Revolution. The 3rd estate delegates formed by the National Assembly, swore not to depart until France had a Constitution.

  • NATIONAL CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY (1789-1791)


The people of Paris revolted and stormed the Bastille prison. Soldiers defending the prison opened the doors. King couldn´t dissolue the Assembly. Draft Constitution

  • LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY (1792-1795)

Absolutists Austria and prussia threatened to invade France.

Political groups formed:


Girondists >>> moderates who wanted a constitutional monarchy.


Jacobins >>>radical liberals who wanted a republic.

  • THE REPUBLIC (1792-1795)


Republic declarated by the National Convention   >>>control of executive and legislative Powers.


King  >>>execute (guillotine). Commitlees were organised.



Commitle of Public Safety  >>>protect the military movement

             >> Leader: Robespierre (Jacobins´ leader)


Anti-revolutionary people  >>> executed. This period was known as the Tervor.

  • TH DIRECTORY (1795-1799) AND THE CONSULATE (1799-1804)


Roberspierre  >>>executed by moderates. Directory (a government) was formed.

Revolutionary france won important military victories over Europe´s absolutist Powers.


Napoleon Bonaparte (+prestigious general) led a coup d´Ètat 1799  >>>took power, appointed himself consul

SANS CULOTTES

Men of lower classes who wore long trousers.


Knee breeches (short trousers) >>>worn by healthy men


Sans cullotes allied with middle class  >>>involved in the main events of the F.R



THE NAPOLEONIC EMPIRE:

1804>>> Napo,leon autoprocalimed Emperor. His victories over Austria and Prussia gave him control over Italy, the Netherlands, Poland and large part of Germany.

He invaded Spain, where his brother José I ruled for several years.

1812>>> tried to conquer Russia but they were defeated and had to withdraw.

Greatest enemy>>> Great Britain. Never able to conquer it

He had to content with the Continental Blockade. English economy was affected but not destroyed.

1815, Battle of Waterloo>>> British+European allies vs Napoleon (was defeated)

Napoleon created the civil code (Napoleonic code):

Guaranteed equality of citizens before the law

Prohibited torture

Aspects of civil life removed from the church´s control

Modrnised education and promoted science and culture

He also divided France into provinces.