How did the production of goods change during the industrial revolution? 

Te driving forces of industrialization (factors)

Te industrial Revolution started in Great Britain in the mid-18th century.

-A political system in wich the power of the monarchy had been limited and the bourgeoisie had a lot of influence. 

-Population growth that had led to a rise in demand and an abundance of labour for the new factories

-An abundance of coal, wich became the main source of energy 

-An extensive transport network of river and canals

-A colonial empire that provided easy access to raw materials and created a large market of exporting manufactured products

The development of industry and the growth of trade 

-The textile and iron industries were the driving force of industrialization and used mechanisation, steam power and the factory system

-The us of minerals, such as iron and coal, became widespread 

-A market economy was born, leading to the creation of a domestic market

Population growth and urban development

The rise of population

-In 1750, Europe’s population experienced a demogra transition. This was due to the rise of food production and, later on, improvements on medicine and hygiene. As a result, the death rate gradually started to decline.

-The reduction in mortality, especially child mortality, led to an increase in life expectancy, wich was 38 years in the late 18th century and had reached 50 years by the end of the 19th century

Urban expansion

-Industrialization transformed old cities in large metropolitan areas. City walls were demolished, new neighborhoods appeared, new modes of transport were created, infrastructure and services

-This urban growth was due to the rural exodus. Agricultural workers, who had lost their land and work following the mechanisation of agriculture and the concentration of land ownership, moved to the cities in search of jobs in factories. 

-Ther was strong social segregation in the new industrial cities:the bourgeoisie lived in elegant neighborhoods and the working class in suburbs near industrial areas. 

The triumph of capitalism 

The growth of finance 

-Infustrialization resulted in the development of finance

-The need fro capital to form new companies led to the creation of public limited companies (joint-stock companies), in wich capital of devised into share of the profits .These are purchased by shareholders, who then receive a share of the profits (dividends)

-Shares are sold on the stock exchange, wich is governed by the law of supply and demand. 

Protectionism and free trade 

-Great Britain was in favor of free trade (no state intervention in international trade)

-European countries and the United States applied protectionist measures. Protectionist tariffs on imported good in order to make them more expensive.

The new class society 

Capitalism established a division between capital and labour. It organized society into two opposing groups or classes: the bourgeoisie and the proletariat.

The new social elite : the bourgeoisie

-In the new industrial world, the high bourgeoisie who gradually replace the aristocracy in social life 

-Below them was the middle bourgeoisie, wich consisted of professionals (lawyers, doctors, etc),civil servants and merchants 

-The new bourgeoisie imposed its social values on the other classes. 

Workers: the labour force

-In the early days of industrialization, there were no labour laws to regulate working conditions or wages, or that would guarantee protection in the event of an accident in wich punishments and penalties were common. They could be dismissed whenever the employer wished. 

New social movements

Workers’ associations 

-The first workers ti protect against industrialization were the Luddites. It consisted of the violent destruction of and unemployment. 

-The first organizations were relief societies, wich acted as resistance groups and helped workers in the event of illness or unemployment. These societies organized the first strikes. 

-Trade unions. It’s first tasks were to defend the right of association, to reduce the working day, to improve wages and to regulate child labour.

The new social solutions 

-The utopian socialists -In the mid-19th century, some thinkers advocated the need for a revolution to end capitalism and build a new egalitarian society. These ideas have rise to two major revolutionary movements: Marcus and anarchism. 

-The Catholic Church was concerned about the condition of the working classes and social inequality. 


War and liberal revolution (1808-1814)

-Firstly Carlos IV was against the French Republic. But the French armies defeated the Spanish troops and this led to a change of strategy, making an alliance with Napoleon against Great Britain. 

-With the Treaty of Fountainebleau (1807) French troops were allowed to pass through Spain and invade Portugal.

-These French troops invaded Spain as well and forced Carlos IV and Ferdinand VII to give the Spainsh crown to Napoleon’s brother Joseph I (1803-1813)

-War of Independence 

  • Irregular troops began guerrilla warfare. Started in Madrid the 2nd of May. 
  • Napoleon occupied most of Spain. Zaragoza and Girona resisted attack for several months. Cadiz wasn’t invaded because it was protected by the British Navy. 
  • The British army commanded by General Wellington defeated the French. In 1813 withdrew Treaty of Valençay from Spain and returned Ferdinand VII. 

The Cádiz Cortes and the 1812 Constitution “La Pepa”

-In Cádiz, that was free form the French control, were created the local Junta, composed of patriots opposed to the occupation. 

-The Central Supreme Junta convened Cortes in Cádiz. 

-Representatives of the Juntas met in this city. The constitution adopted in 1812, established national sovereignty, the separation of powers, universal male suffrage and broad individual freedoms End of Ancien Régime and Absolut monarchy.

Ferdinand VII: the restoration of absolutism (1814-1833)

-Six years of absolutism. Ferdinand VIIreoealed the Constitution of 1812 and persecuted liberals. 

-Liberal Triennium. Colones Riego forced Ferdinand VII his troops to reinstate the Constitution of 1812. The king demanded help to the Holy Alliance (troops from European absolutists monarchs) and restored absolutism.

-The ominous decade. Return to absolutism, economic and political problems. The American territories obtained their Independence. In 1830 Ferdinand VIII issued the Pragmatic Sanction, repealing the Salic Law in order to allow his daughter to become queen. 

Carlists, defenders of the Ancien Régime 

-On the death of Ferdinand VII, in 1833, the absolutists refused to recognize this three years old daughter. They supported Ferdinand’s brother Carlos María Isidro. 

-After 6 years of war (1833-1839) the “Isabelinos” won.

Isabella II and the buildings of the liberal state (1833-1868)

-The regency of María Cristina (18833-1840). Governed the moderate liberals. The most important event apart from the Carlist war was the Confiscation (Desamortización) of Mendizábal. 

-The regency of Espartero (1839-1843). Espartero’s authoritarian ideas and his introduction of free trade measures favoured that the queen Isabella was declared of age in 1843, when she was 13 years old. 

-The Moderate Decade (1843-1854). The authoritarian tendencies of political leaders caused another progressive military revolt. 

-The Progressive Biennium (1854-1856). Confiscation of the commons, the general Railwy Law and the Minning Act were their most important laws. 

-The system in decline (1856-1868). Isabella’s reign deteriorated as an economic crisis led to further social unrest a new military revolt. 

Six years of democracy (1868-1874)

-The Glorious Revolution. It was an insurrection to overthrown Isabella II and stablish a democratic system. New democratic Constitution and the need of finding a new king for Spain. 

-The monarchy of Amadeo (1870-1873). He had strong opponents. There is a second Carlist war and tired of the political situation and tired of the country make Amadeo I to abdicate and leave the country. 

-The first Republic (1873-1874). The Republic had 4 presidents and a series of problems that made its proper establishment impossible. 

The bourbon restoration (1874-1902)

-A new system based in “turnismo” in wich teo political parties shared the government (come years conservatives and some years liberals), was created (canovist system)

-In Catalonia and in the Basque Country appeared nationalists movements) 

-By the end of the century the system was in crisis. Crisis that became deeper when Spain lost its American and Asian colonies against USA (1898)