1. What was the consulate? Indicate its objectives and its main characteristics:

A period of autocratic and authoritarian ruled by Napoleon. 


  • Put an end to the political instability of the Revolution.

  • Consolidate some of the revolutionary principles 

  • Promote economy recovery through a government that represented the interest of the bourgeoisie.

Main characteristics:

  • He established a new Constitution on 1800, which did not include the separation of powers or a declaration of rights. 

  • Censorship was imposed to control public opinion.

  • The state was organized into departments that were run by prefects who implemented government policies. 

  • Public finance sector was formed. 

  • State schools were created to educate an elite of civil servants. 

  • He let people to return from the exile if they accepted his government.

  • He signed an agreement with the church (Concordat)

  • He signed a code and a commercial code

  • The bank of France was created. 

  • New banknotes were issued. 

  1.  Indicate what principles from the French Revolution are used in many western democracies today. 

  • Citizens started to have the rights as the right to vote, and the right to choose their representatives

  • Popular sovereignty

  • Stablish Constitutions. 

  • Equality before the law

  • Independent justice system.

  • The state administration was organized into departments and town councils. 

  • Freedom of trade and contract was implemented

  • A new decimal system of measurement was introduced to make the exchange of goods easier. 

  • Separation of the Church and the State (secular states)

  • The development of education for everybody and not only for the elites (compulsory education for all citizens.

  • The first public museum were created (Louvre in Paris in 1793) 

3.What is the Congress of Vienna?

It was a meeting organized by the Austrian Chancellor Metternich after Napoleon was defeated. The Congress of Vienna was created with the intention of stopping the liberal ideas and restore absolutism in Europe 

WHO SIGNED IT? Russia, Britain, Prussia and Austria. 

WHAT DID IT ESTABLISHED? They reshaped the European map, they stablished the ideological principles of the Restoration of absolutism and the denial of national sovereignty. 


4.Explain the Greek independence

Many Greeks wanted the independence from the Ottoman Empire since they had been part of the Ottoman Empire for centuries. Therefore, Greek had to pay high taxes, they were excluded from state administration jobs and they felt dominated by a group of people with different religion and culture. 

In 1822, the Greeks declared independence from in Epidaurus, but it was not recognized by the Turks, and resulted in a war. The European liberals supported the Greeks. In 1827, with the help of French and British military intervention, the Greek defeated the Ottoman Empire and gained their independence in 1830. 

5.Explain the Belgian independence

Belgium was made part of the Kingdom of Holland by the congress of Vienna in 1815, which then became the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The spread of liberal ideas helped Belgian revolution, and Belgium became a liberal monarchy ruled by Leopold I. 

An armed conflict followed Belgium´s declaration of independence. It finally ended when the Netherlands recognised Belgium´s independence in 1839. 

6.Explain the Italian Unification

In the early 19th century, Italy was divided into several states and Austria had annexed Lombardy- Venetia.

In 1859, the liberal monarchy of Piedmont- Sardinia, governed by Prime Minister Cavour, started a unification process. They declared was on Austria and annexed Lombardy.

At the same time a popular uprising led by Garibaldi, overthrew the absolute monarchies in central and southern Italy.

In 1861, Victor Manuel II of Savoy was proclaimed king of Italy. 1866, Austria left Venetia, and in 1870, the Papal States were annexed by Italy. The new state established its capital in Rome. 

7.Explain the Germany unification

Germany was divided into 36 states, and associated with the German Confederation, in which Prussia and Austria were the strongest, and were competing for power. 

In 1834, Prussia created a customs Union and united the majority of the Germanic States. In 1848, Germany´s first freely elected parliament met and offered the crown of Germany to the king of Prussia, who refused it because it parliament was liberal. 

In 1861, the first movement towards a united Germany were made as Wilhelm I became king of Prussia and made Otto Von Bismarck chancellor. Prussia declared was on Denmark in 1864, on Austria in 1866 and on France in 1870. 

Prussia was victorious in all three wars, making the unification of Germany possible. In 1871 Wilhelm I was proclaimed Kaiser of the Second German Empire (Reich)

The consequence of this unification was the rivalry between Germany and France since Germany annexed Alsace and Lorain (two cities that belonged to France and they reclaimed them as part of their territories) it was going to be one of the causes for the First World War,