The ancien regime
in the e 17th and 18h centuries. France operated under a sociopolitical system later know as ancien regime.this term is also used to describe the situation in most other european countries during this period.its most significant characteristics were:
Absolute monarchy
The monarch was king by divine right and  could exercise all yhr powersthe state: It Was believed Ihat only God could judge his actions
State intervention in the economy
The economny was based on agrarlan activities, with some trade and urbanhandicrafts The stole took an acTive role in economic matters
Argument from authority
Knowledge and beliefs were based on the aulthority of powerful individualür institutions, such as the mo0narch, the Church Or ancient texts. These ideas were considered valid, with no need to prove fhem
The estate system
Soclety was still divided into three estates, as it had been since the MiddleAges. However, the sOclal reality was very diflerent
The first and second estates were made up of clergy and nobIity respectively. They had many privileges ond 1hey were also financially supported by fhe taxes pald by the third estate. This led to growing resentment, as the Ihird estate.especially the bourgeoisle, began to consider them soclal parasites.
the third estate was made  of the bourgeolsle together with Wage-labOurers and peasants The bourgeoisin had became the most dynamic nd powerlul sociol group However, despite increasing diflerences, they were still considered part of the lowest estate (comoners)

Parliamentary systems
The most common poltical system in 17th.century Europe was absolute monarchy But new poutical models had already emerged in the Dutch Republic and later in England these states implemented parliamentary systems that is the governing authority was limited by an assembly.However they each Created a difterent kind of parliamentary model
Dutch Republic
When part of the Spanish Netherlands gained independence from Spanish rule in 1581 the monarchy was.replaced by a confederation.of seven provinces creating a federal republic There were two levels of representarion:
Each of the provinces had its own assembly
The States General was the federal assembly with representatives from each of the provinces
Each province appointed an executive who was known as the stadtholder. the same person could be stadholder for more than one province
After à period of revolutio in the 17th century the Engish Parliamen passed the Bill of Rights in 1689 this established a system of goverment known as a pariamentary monarchy
Parilament was divided into two chambers:
The House of Lords made up of representalives of tne nobilty
The House of Commons, representing the bourgeoisie
The monarch’s powers particularly over tinances, were limited by Pariament. The king could not pass laws

The age of Enlightenment

The Eelightenment was an intellectual movement that emerged in the 18th Century, especially in England and France. If wan based on tiree pillars
Reason:A tool to guide all knowledge,leading to an understanding of the universe through sciene
Critical thinking A process to call into question anything which does not represnt well reasoned understandlg
Progress the idea that knowledge Can transform society and improves Human condition
Sclentific advances
The Enilghtenment was the consequence of new ways of thinking introduced by the 17h-centuy intellectuals Descartes and Locke They advocated rotionalism and empiricism the use of reason and experimentation Ihis was the basis of he sclentific method of inquiry in the 18th century there were great scientific advances that continued appiying this method
Physics:Isaac Newton (1643-1727) made major contributions io mechanical and gravitational physics
Biology:Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) created the first system of classification of living things
Astronomy:Willlam Herschel (1738-1822).who was also a musiclan, discovered the planet Uranus
Chemistry:Antoine Lavoisier (1 743-1794) described the law of conservation of mass
Medicine:Edward Jenner (1749-1823) developed the first vaccine against smallpox
Exploration:James Cook (1728-1779) explored and mapped much of the South Pacific Islands
Enlightenment thinkers
The Enlightenment 1deas were mainly spread by a group of French thinkers They opposed to the ancien régime, especially to the absolute monarchny
the estate system and argument from authority. They all contributed to the creation of a new model of political and social organisation based on the ideas of freedom and equality.
rousseau:He argued in favour of democratic 1deas such as popular sovereignty, He also proposed new,more advanced, views on education, although they did not include women
montesquieu:He advocated political ideas such as the separation of powers: dividing the state into branches,or different institutions so that not all the power was held by the monarch.his political treatise the spirit of the laws was extremely influential
voltaire:He believed in a natural relígion
and the existence of a Supreme Being but rejected churches and superstition. He supported a strong monarchy limited by a parliament.his key text was the satirical novella candide
The Encyclopédie
It was a compilation of all the knowledge of their time, explained
Scientifically and based firmly on reason. It was published in 28 volumes, between 1751 and 1772. Its main editors were Denis Diderot and Jean D’Alembert., but it included contributions from many other Enlightenment thinkers. It was the most influential work of the Enlightenment. However, it was rejected by the traditional intellectual, religious and political establishment

New economic theories

The Enlightenment ideas of freedom and equality also had a significant
inluence on economic theory. The Enlightenment thinkers advocated less
Stdte intervention in the economy This principle gave rise to two economic theories
Physiocracy:It was developed by a group of French economists, particularly by François Quesnay. He argued that land (agriculture
and mining) was the primary Source of wealth because it provides food and the raw materials for handicrafts.
To develop agriculture, it was necessary to ensure private ownership of land and avoid state control over the economy
Economic liberalism:It was first formulated by the British philosopher Adam Smith He maintained that individual labour is the true source of wealth, because self-interest motivates people to maximise their own gain. To create wealth, market exchanges should be free. They should be ruled only by the supply of products and Consumer demand. 
Enlightened despotism
In the 18th century, a few European absolutist monarchs accepted some Enlightenment principles They adopted the goal of economiC and cultural progress but rejected its political ideas Their philosophy was ‘Everything for the people, nothing by the people The most important of these monarchs were Frederick II of Prussia. Catherine II of Russia, loseph Il of Austria and Carlos III of Spain These monarchs are known as enlightened despots Enlightened because they focused on economic and cultural modernisation They promoted agriculture, industry and trade They carried out major public works, and also founded new schools and academies ‘Despots’ because they continued to impose strict absolutism, denying political decision-making power to their subjects

Independence of the United States

The first place where the political ideas of freedom and equality of the Enlightenment had a practical application was in the Thirteen colonies held by Great Britain on the east coast of North America British colonists had first settled in North America in 1607 By the 18th century, there were some 300,000. The spread of new ideas during the Enlightenment prompted colonists to consider the British government despotic.
Boston tea party (1773)
Relations between the colonies and the mother country became more and more tense. The main source of conflict were the taxes imposed by the British Parliament, where the colonists had no representation. In 1773, a group of colonists threw an
entire shipment of tea aboard British ships into Boston Harbour. The British response was severe.
War of independence (1775-1783)
In 1775, armed hostilities broke out between the colonies and the British. In 1776, the Thirteen Colonies issued their Declaration of Independence, based on liberal ideological principles. Followinga long war, Great Britain acknowledged the United States of
America as a sovereign nation at the 1783 Treaty of Paris.
constitution (1787)
After the war, the new nation had to establish a system of government. Delegates trom the states met in Philadelphia in 1787 to draft the Constitution.This document contains the major political ideas of the Enlightenment: national sovereignty, separation of
powers, suffrage and individualrights and liberties
A European war
Carlos II, the last Spanish monarch of the House of Habsburg. died in 1700 without an heir. There were two pretenders, each of them supported by different European powers. The War of the Spanish Succession broke out in 1701.
Philip, Duke of Anjou:Carlos II named Philip, Duke of Anjou, of the House of Bourbon, as his SUccessor. Philip was the grandson of Louis XIV, the French king. He was crowned king as Felipe V,marking the beginning of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain.
the peace of utrecht
the war ended with peace of utrecht (1713-1714) a set of treaties in which spain cedes territory to austria,great britaib and savoy
Felipe V was recognised as the king of
Spain. But he had to renounce to his
claim to the French throne and all the
European possessions of the Spanish
crown, which therefore lost its hegemony
great britain received gibraltar and menorca.it also got a monopoly on the slave trade with the spanish colonies in america
archduke charles,who was now holy roman emperor,received the spanish netherlands,most os duchy of milan the kingdom of naples and sardinia

A civil war
The succession problem led to a civil war. Supporters of Felipe V were mostly
based in the kingdoms of Castilla. But Archduke Charles had many backers in
the Crown of Aragón. They were afraid that the Bourbons would impose the
French model of centralised state and absolutism.
The Nueva Planta decrees
One of the first things Felipe V did was take action against the territories of
the Crown of Aragón. The Nueva Planta decrees abolished all the fueros and
privileges of Aragón, Cataluña, Valencia and Mallorca. Their Cortes
(legislative bodies) were also eliminated. From that time, they would be
governed by the same laws as Castilla. This process is known as centralisation.
A new dynasty: the House of Bourbon
The domestic policy of the Bourbons in Spain was characterised by:
Strong absolute rule. To achieve this, they weakened the hereditary
power of the nobility. They also tried to increase the power of the monarch
at the expense of the church, a policy known as regalismo.
New institutions. These had to meet the needs of the new centralised
state, such as the state secretariats, predecessors of today’s ministries,
and the division of the territory into provinces
The Foreign policy was determined by the Pacte de Famille (Family
Compact). These were alliances with the Bourbon monarchy in France,
whose greatest rival was Great Britain,
These domestic and foreign policies were consolidated during the lengthy
reign of Felipe V and his two sons, Fernando VI and Carlos III
Enlightenment ideas in Spain
In Spain, the Enlightenment lacked the revolutionary aspect and political
opposition that characterised the French experience
HOwever, Spain did adopt Enlightenment ideas by promoting the economy,
cuture and education. The 18th-century Bourbon kings, especially Carlos
, implemented important measures to stimulate economic development
Enlightenment thinkers
Benito Jerónimo Feijoo was the most outstanding thinker of the first
period of the Enlightenment in Spain. His work Teatro Critico Universal
played an important role in spreading the new ideas.
During the second half of the 18th century, important intellectuals like
Olavide, Campomanes and Jovellanos were also involved in politics. They
tried to put their ideas about modernising the country into practice.
Enlightenment institutions
Different institutions were created with the aim of spreading the new
Enlightenment ideas and promoting economic and cultural development:
Institutions such as the societies of Friends of the Country promoted
improvements in agriculture, trade and industry.
Royal academies of language, history, fine arts and others organised and
disseminated knowledge

Economic reforms

The government helped promote and improve the Spanish
industry by founding royal factories (including the
tapestry factory in Madrid and the glass factory in La
Granja), as well as different art and trade schools.
Ground and river transport were improved. A radial road
network was built, starting in Madrid. The Castilla Canal,
a massive engineering project, helped improve the flow-
of-goods traffic
The trade monopoly previously held by Sevilla and Cádiz
ended, allowing other Spanish ports to trade with the
Americas. This was a major step towards free trade with
less government control
The State used physiOcratic ideas to modernise
agriculture. An important policy involved repopulating
abandoned areas, such as the colonies established in
Sierra Morena under Carlos llI.
Neoclassical sculpture
Sculpture returned to the models of Antiquity in terms of simplicity and themes. Artists tried to replicate the serene facial expressions, gentle movements and idealised figures of classical sculpture.
There was an emphasis on geometry in the figures. They worked in marble and bronze, considered the best Classical materials. Italian sculptor Antonio Canova is considered one of the
finest Neoclassical sculptors. He is known for his delicate and graceful figures.
Neoclassical painting
Neoclassical painters focused on portraits, scenes of salons and daily life, historical subjects and themes from Antiquity related to heroism, patriotism and moral rectitude,
Neoclassicism gave greater importance to line (form and drawing) than to colour. Figures and li8nting were meant to be serene and soft French painters were especially important, most notably:
Jacques-Louis David was the main promoter of neoclassicism
painting. He was inspired by the composition of Roman
Jean-Auguste- Dominique Ingres learnt at J. L. David’s
school and developed a personal style finding inspiration
in the works of Raphael


a new artistic style called Neoclassicism was initiated in France during tne

Second half of the 18th century. It was influenced by the Enligntenments
focus on reason and by the opportunities for first-hand observaton or ancient works.
it moved away from the exaggerated Baroque style and excessive
Decoration and aimed to a return to the balance and serenity of tne drt or
the Early Renaissance and its Greco-Roman origins
It was closely linked to the European academies of art. Academic art was
founded on prescriptive treatises and rules that expressed the new Way of
thinking. They tried to establish control over the artistic output based on
the adherence to certain precepts and traditions
Neoclassical architecture
Rational Enlightenment principles were applied to new buildings and
structures, incorporating classical qualities such as purity and grandeur.
Major European architects included Jacques-Germain Soufflot, designer of
the Pantheon in Paris, and Karl Langhans, who designed the Brandenburg
Gate in Berlin (pictured below).
New structures were built using a
huge scale. They conveyed a sense
of symmetry and elegance. The
entrance resembles the façade of the
Parthenon in Greece.
The frieze is decorated with
motifs found on Greek
temples: triglyphs and
Sculpture followed
classical models. This
bronze quadriga is driven
by the winged goddess of
Classical decorative elements like
pediments and columns were used.
Forms were simple and free of
unnecessary decoration.

neoclassicis in spain
The Barogue style was highly developed and very prominent in Spain. As
result, Neoclassicism initially encountered a lot of resistance
It was difficult to introduce new standards but academicism eventually
prevailed. The Royal Academy of Fine Arts was a major promoter of
Neoclassical architecture and sculpture in Spain
In Madrid, architecture and sculpture works increased during the reign of
Carlos III, who commissioned large structures designed for science, leisure
and ornamentation. They followed the standards of classical aesthetics set
by the Academy.
Neoclassical sculpture
The polychrome wood used in the Baroque era gave
way to marble and bronze. Sculptures and statues
emulated classical models.
Neoclassical architecture
Buildings were designed to impress viewers. Forms
were simplified and classical decorative elements
were used to convey balance and elegance
Neoclassical painting in Spain
One of the main advocates of Neoclassicism in Spain was painter Anton R.
Mengs. He was a German artist invited to court by Carlos II, who brought
with him the new style
As in the rest of Europe, painters took up classical mythological themes.
They also focused on portraits and historical subjects. Spanish artists
also depicted costumbrista scenes of contemporary life
Later Neoclassical artists included José de Madrazo, who served as director
of the Prado Museum, and Francisco de Goya