5.1:  1- Which natural rights did Locke think that all people had? The right to protect their life, health, liberty and freedom; the right to choose their government 2- Which country did the liberals think was a good example for European countries? Why? Give at least two reasons.The Declaration of Independence stated that. All men are created equal. All men have rights including life. liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed (popular sovereignty). 3- What was the social background of liberals in the 1800s? What were they after? In the 19th century, most liberals came from the middle classes. They wanted greater freedom, and an end to the nobility’s privileges. 4.-What were the main aims of the Congress of Vienna? To prevent revolutions against hereditary monarchs and to prevent future wars. 5- Look at the map. Find at least two examples of the principle of compensation. (1) Austria gained territory in what is now Italy (2) Russia gained most of Poland and Finland (3) Britain gained overseas colonies (4) Sweden gained Norway. 

6- Look at the map. Find at least two examples of the principle of legitimacy. Bourbon monarchs were restored in (1) France, (2) Spain and (3) the Two Sicilies. 8- Which people were unhappy with the outcome of the Congress? Why? The liberals who believed in the Enlightenment were unhappy because they thought it was a return to the Ancien Régime. 5.1.2: 1- Who was behind the liberal revolutions of the 19th century? What was their main purpose? The middle and working classes. In Europe, they wanted to transform the conservative society created by the Congress of Vienna by creating new republics or establishing constitutional monarchies. In Latin America, they wanted to achieve independence and create new liberal republics. 2-What were the liberals’ demands? Political liberalism, such as universal suffrage, equality before the law and freedom of speech and freedom of the press; economic justice through better working conditions, and new states with new liberal governments. 3- Who opposed the liberal revolutions? What was their main goal? The upper classes. Conservatives believed in conserving a traditional society, based on religious values. 

 4- Why did the middle class and the working class divide after the liberal revolutions?  Because the middle class became more powerful and supported the upper class interests (capitalism), and as a consequence, the working class (proletariat) understood that they did not have the same interests.6- What kind of ruler was Ferdinand VII? He was an absolute monarch. 7- And Isabella II? He was a moderate constitutional monarch. 8- Who supported Isabella II? Liberals and moderate conservatives who believed in the separation of powers, and wanted to modernise the economy. The government and the towns supported Isabella. 9- Who was Charles, Count of Molina, and who supported him? He was Ferdinand’s younger brother and he was supported by people who wanted a traditional society, based on the Catholic religion and absolute monarchy, but they did not want a female monarch. Carlists had most support amongst the clergy and peasants in rural areas, particularly in northern Spain. 10- How many Carlists wars were fought? Who won them? There were three Carlists wars, they were won by Isabella’s supporters: liberals and moderate conservatives.

5.3: 1.- Why do you think that this period is sometimes called the “Scramble for Africa”? The European powers raced (or “scrambled”) to colonize as much territory in Africa as they could.

2- Why did European countries want empires? Colonies provided raw materials for manufacturing industries, as well as a market for finished products. 3- What advantages did the Europeans have that allowed them to colonize Africa so quickly? Due to the Second Industrial Revolution, they had much better technology, ships and weapons. 4- Which two European countries completed their unification in 1871? How do their empires compare in size to Britain and France’s? Germany and Italy. Their empires are much smaller. 5- In 1898, there was a dispute between the British and the French at Fashoda in Sudan. Why do you think this was? Look at the map – who won? France wanted an empire stretching from east to west Africa, while Britain wanted a corridor from north to south. Both countries needed Sudan to achieve their aims. Britain won. 

5.3.2: 1- Write down three differences between settler colonies and exploitative colonies. (1) In settler colonies, the British took complete control, whereas in exploitative colonies they established trading agreements but did not rule directly. (2) In settler colonies, there were large numbers of British citizens (settlers), whereas in exploitative colonies there were only a few British citizens. (3) Settler colonies had English-speaking societies based on English values, whereas exploitative colonies did not. 2- It used to be said that “The Sun never sets on the British Empire”. What do you think this means? The British had colonies all over the world. It was therefore always daytime somewhere in the Empire. 3- What was the All Red Line used for? Communication between the different parts of the British Empire. 4- Why do you think the British wanted control of Egypt? Britain wanted control of Egypt in order to control the Suez Canal, which was very important for trade with India.

5- Before 1775, the British sent criminals to their American colonies. Why couldn’t they do this any more by 1788?  Their American colonies had become independent (as the United States), so the British could not send criminals there any more. 6.-Where was most of France’s a) first empire? b) second empire? a) the Americas b) Africa. 7- How was the administration of French colonies different from British ones? They used direct rule, which meant that a French governor ruled each colony, based on French laws and customs. 8- Did many native people become French citizens? Why / Why not? No, because they were not given the necessary education. 9- Compare the British and French Empires ruling styles. French colonial administration was very centralized and based on assimilation of colonial territories with France, while British colonial administration was much more decentralized, based upon cooperation with local chiefs.