G e H

Industrial rev 3

REASONS:increase in agricultural production due to changes in agriculture. Triennial rotation was substituted by the Norfolk four-course system. Livestock increased so the nutrition improved. Changes in land ownership: 
large English landowners pushed to turn common land into  private propertyEnd of catastrophic mortality Population growth. Modernisation of transport Growth of financial means.  Abundance in coal and other raw materials. wealthy through their economic activities. 


Mechanization: Artisanal workshops almost disappear.  Factories: large buildings with many workers and machines, substitution of manual labour with machines powered by a new energy  source, Production was faster. Replaced skilled and creative labour with routine and unskilled labour.

Textile:Increase in demand for cotton fabrics, Change in energy source. Power loom: steam powered weaving machine and self-acting spinning mule: spinning machine.

• Metallurgy: Iron melted in ovens powered by coal, Steam engine: machine using steam power obtained by burning coal Machines were used to move the bellows that blew air into the blast furnace. 

Transport: Steam boat:The first steamboats were riverboats with a large paddle wheels.wasn´t used for boats until the invention of the iron hull. Countries improved their infrastructure, ports 

Railway: Developed when the locomotive was invented,

The first railways were developed in Great Britain and transported goods,

Railways were fully incorporated when “Rocket” was invented                                                                            Expansion: First wave of countries to industrialize: 

France: did not use steam, due to abundant water − Belgium: industrialized fast due to cheap transport,

Switzerland: lacked natural resources but had specialized workers,                                                                                        Germany: began promoting new industries thanks to abundant coal mines


• Economic consequences: Rise of trade: increase of demand and supply, new stage of capitalism, Limited partnerships: certain partners provided capital and others administered it. Public limited companies, capital divided into small amounts,  shares (acciones). Profit and risk were divided among a large number of shareholders. Creation of exchange − Beginning of financial capitalism, Economic inequality among countries

• Social consequences:  

The bourgeoise gained political power, due to their increasing wealthy, Upper commercial and industrial bourgeoise was at the top. Middle class made up of small merchants,Proletariat :Made up of peasants who had migrated to cities and former artisans who had gone  bankrupt, Cheap workforce with no professional qualifications. 

− Workers were easily fired, Between 30 to 75% of the workforce consisted on women and children. 

• Political: labour movement. Movements of organizations of working class to improve conditions. Protests against mechanisation.Friendly societies: members paid a fee and received aid in case of job loss or accidents. Trade unions: claimed better working conditions 


This artistic movement reached its peak in the first half of the 19th century as a reaction to Neoclassicism. It allowed for imagination, creativity, fantasy and the expression of feelings.

1.most important events in Spanish history 1788 and 1814 

1788: Charles IV acceded to the throne and left his power to Manuel Godoy   1793: Execution of Louis XVI    1795: Peace of Basel1808: Mutiny of Aranjuez 1808: 2 of May Uprising 1808: Joseph I Bonaparte, king 1810: Cortes of Cadiz1810: Approved the freedom of press1811:  Approved  the abolished manors 1812: Constitution 1813: Treaty of Valencay 1813: Trade guilds and the Inquisition

Timeline different stages reign of Ferdinand VII 4   1808-1814: War Independence The Absolutist Sexennium (1814-1820): abolishment of the Constitution of 1812 and the Cortes de Cádiz. Persecution of the liberals. The Liberal Triennium (1820-1823): Ferdinand VII swore allegiance to the Constitution of Cádiz and accept the reestablishment of the Cortes of Cádiz. He also obtained aid from absolutists powers. The Ominous Decade (1823-1833): repression of the liberals. In 1830. Don Carlos didn’t accept it and with the support of the absolutists forced Ferdinand´s wife to rely on the liberals.                   main political parties under the reign of Isabel II?              Were two confronted liberal parties: the Moderate party, composed of the upper bourgeoisie and some sectors of the middle class and the Progressive party, which consisted of the urban middle class, such as small merchants. They both were liberal parties who defended similar ideas although the fact that they defended the same aspects cost rivalry and a huge political instability in the country.                                main events during the 6 year Revolutionary period             In 1868, the Glorious Revolution started which led to the exile of the queen and to the establishment of a Provisional Government that promulgated the Constitution of 1869, which was much more democratic and guaranteed rights and freedoms. This was followed by the democratic monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy (1871-1873). He faced political opposition to the Republicans. This was a period from 1873-1874 of considerable political instability because the division of the Republicans: unionists and federalists.                  constitutions were created in Spain during the 19th century: The Constitution of 1812: It was Spain’s first to accept human rights, such as equalityThe Constitution of 1837: Human freedom, censitary suffrage, division of powers The Constitution of 1845: there was free printing and publishing for the ideasThe Constitution of 1869: This Constitution approved the right to free speech, freedom of the press,

 What was the Desamortización:                                                the Liberals ordered the disentailment or selling of amortized goods The statesold the goods of the clergy and revoked the nobility’s demand estates and directed the sale of common lands, local councils’ personal goods.The trading system favored the aristocracy and the bourgeoisie and produced vast estates, and it affected small landlords who could not afford properties 

Imperialism and WWI            5                                      European colonial expansion turned to Africa, Asia and the Pacific and entered Imperialism, which implied military, political and economic control of European minority over dominated territories.Political and strategic: possession of colonies assured power and international prestige of countries Demographic: colonies provided territories where excess population could be sent to reduce unemployment  Economic: increased production required having territories that supplied raw materials for industry Ideological: ideologies manipulated social Darwinism and proclaimed superiority of white race along with its mission to civilize the rest of the world.              New means of transport and communication
Means of transport. Electricity applied to railways, the internal combustion engine led to the birth of cars, improved navigation and began aviation Infrastructures improved due to the completion of Panama Canal. The extension of the railway network. Communications progressed: inventions; telephone, phonograph , cinematograph, radio.                          Agricultural activities Agriculture: increased yields. Work facilitated by machines driven by electric and combustion engines. New techniques. Progress in transportation
Domestic trade: new systems to sale increased production and techniques. International trade acquired global dimension . Trade protectionism and conquest of colonial empires.                                                                                      Social developments
Labor movement: gained affiliates. Laborers parties emerged such as the  (SPD) in 1875. Labor internationalism revived. Marxists purists (power- revolutionstes  to formulate laws which regulated hours and established protection measures field of employment. Mass production lowered prices of goods economic field.                                                                  The consequences of Imperialism                            Colonialism. Political power,. It intensified international, political and economic confrontations that ked to WWI
Dominated nations. Local governments removed or controlled by foreigners and internal conflicts were aggravated. Traditional economy altered; prevented industrialization, imposed unequal trade, created infrastructures. Society was divided into a foreign minority and the indigenous majority. The cultures of colonized peoples were displaced

The causes of the conflict                                                The root  causes: Political conflicts; Territorial reasons . Other reasons colonial clashes between imperialist powers for the control of certain territories.
Economic rivalries increased due to commercial competition. France and UK distrusted the growth of the German economy and its presence on colonial markets.
The military alliance systems led to an arms race which could turn any incident into a war of enormous proportions.        The spark of war The war initiated due to the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand  in Sarajevo (1914) by a Serbian nationalist student. As a result, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia  initiated system of alliances.            The development of the conflict.
Characteristics of the war                                                          Vast territorial extension: sixteen nations took part. Use of new offensive weapons. New defense systems New forms of combat. The war also triggered economic and social transformations: economy of contending countries became focused on the prediction of war material. Society suffered hardships, women joined the workforce to replace men. 
Phases and events: The war of movement (1914): the war began on both Eastern and Western Fronts. Germany attempted a flash victory over France. But France resisted at the Battle of the Marne and the rapid Russian advance forced Germany to send troops to the eastern Front. At the end the Ottoman Empire joined the Central powers. Trench Warfare (1915-1916): fronts were stabilized long extensive lines of trenches. Offensives were launches at Verdun, Somme, etc. The war became a global conflict with the entry of Bulgaria, Italy, Portugal, Japan, etc. The War ends (1917-1918): US joined in 1917 and Russia withdrew after the triumph if the communist revolution and the Treat of Brest-Litvosk. In 1918, the Allies launched offensives.                                                    The Consequences of the War. 9 million people were killed, plus some injured or disabled. It caused serious material losses, sharpened contrasts between working classes, impoverished middle classes and a minority. It favored work of women outside, promoted pacifist and antimilitarist ideology, increased desire for revenge by defeated countries. After the war, Central Powers and ruling dynasties disappeared, most countries adopted universal male suffrage and granted vote to women. European world supremacy was replaced by the Us.