– CONCEPT AND FEATURES:* FEUDALISM: political, social and economic system in Western Europe between 9th-15th centuries,  with the following characteristics:* Features: loss of political power by kings, social organisation based on relationships of dependence (king-nobles-peasants), agrarian economy, influence of Christian religion and Romanesque as common artistic style.- ORIGIN AND EXPANSION:* Origin: instability after death of Charlemagne (9th century), due to struggles between his successors, Muslim attacks in Mediterranean and second wave of invaders (VIKINGS=or Normans, from Scandinavia, sacked European coasts and MAGYARS=from Hungary, attacked Western Europe). * Spread: kings looked for military allegiance from nobles in exchange for concessions, and peasants sought protection of nobles for land or work. Feudalism extended throughout Europe between 9th-11th centuries.-     * CURIA REGIS: assembly of nobles and clergy who advised king on major issues or main political decisions. . 2. FEUDAL ECONOMY – ORGANISATION OF THE MANNOR: * Wealth was based on land. FIEFDOMS or MANORS=large territories that king granted to nobility and clergy for their services, consisted of two parts: * DEMESNE: territory exploited directly by lord, including his residence (castle), best farmland cultivated by serfs, meadows, forests and rivers. * DEPENDENT HOLDINGS: small plots of land granted by lord to free peasants in exchange for territorial rent (part of harvest) and personal benefits (some days of work at demesne or certain services).- WORK ON THE MANNOR: * Manors were self-sufficient:agricultural tasks were carried out there and articles for everyday life were crafted in manor workshops.* Work of land: rudimentary tools (hoe, sickle, scythe, Roman plough), biennial crop rotation (half of land left fallow) and very low crop yields. * Items for daily life: were made at forge or carpenter, and there were other facilities (mill, winepress, oven, press, bridge) owned by lord, who collected taxes for their use. * There was little trade, handled by itinerant merchants.

Catalan Counties. Franks created SPANISH MARCH (border province south of Pyrenees and divided into counties). Wilfred the Hairy united counties (878) and Borrel II gained independence from Franks (988). 

4. ORGANISATION OF CHRISTIAN GROUPS – GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION: * Government of Christian groups passed to hereditary kings or counts. * Resettlement consisted of installing population and cultivating land in territory conquered to Muslims. PRESURA was widely used system and land was occupied by free peasants as owners. MUNICIPAL CHARTERS were written documents establishing privileges granted to settlers by king or count. * Administration of territory was organised into districts surrounding a castle, governed and defended by a count. ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES: * Agrarian activities. Agriculture was basic, cultivating cereals and using fallow system and simple tools. Livestock farming prevailed in mountains. * Urban activities. Crafts and trade were scarce and concentrated in cities. They were small and walled, and acted as political (palace of king or count), religious (seat of bishop) and economic (markets for agricultural and manufactured products) centres, such as Santiago, León or Barcelona. CHRISTIAN SOCIETY: * Free peasants owned land, lived in villages and gathered in open councils to adress important issues. * Small group of powerful people was formed by nobility (managed and defended territory comissioned by kings) and abbots (ruled monasteries). 

ESTATES: social closed groups, determined by birth. There were three and each one performed a social function Feudal relationship (VASSALAGE), between lord (king or great noble or cleric) and vassal (noble of lower rank), with a pact of military allegiance in exchange for economic concessions. It took place in commendation ceremony, with two parts: homage (vassal swore oath of fealty to give lord military aid and advice) and investiture (lord gave benefit or fiefdom to vassal, including a large area of land and the right to govern it). * Seigniorial relationship (SERVITUDE): between lord, who gave protection and permission to work land, and peasant, who was bound to work on demesne (serfs) or dependent holdings (free farmers). In this case, they had to give a portion of harvest (territorial rent), days of work at demesne (personal benefits) and taxes for goverment (jurisdictional rights). 

CULAR (lived amongst laypeople, bishops+priests) REGULAR (lived in monastic community, abbots+monks or abbesses+nuns). TITHE=tax paid by free peasants, consisted of one-tenth of harvest SCRIPTORIUM (place where codices were copied by hand and illustrated EMIRATE: political and religiously dependent province of Umayyad Caliphate, with capital in Córdoba SPANISH MARCH (borderline province south of Pyrenees). MULADIS (former Christians converted to Islam) RAZZIAS (punitive expeditions against Christians) TAIFAS small independent kingdoms HACHIB (prime minister who controlled administration and finance) VIZIERS (advisors in a council). JASSA (aristocracy): small group of Arabs with positions and properties. AMMA (mass of population): peasants and city dwellers, consisted of MOZARABS (mantained Christian religion) and MULADIS (adopted Muslim religion). PRESURA was widely used system and land was occupied by free peasants as owners. MUNICIPAL CHARTERS were written documents establishing privileges granted to settlers by king or count.
711: group of Arabs+Berbers, leaded by Tariq, defeated Visigothic King Rodrigo at Battle of Guadalete. Muslims occupied the Iberian Peninsula. 722: Muslims were defeated by Asturians at Battle of Covadonga. Asturians and some Visigoths, led by Pelayo, defeated Muslims. With capital in Oviedo, Alfonso III extended from Galicia and source of Ebro to Duero. 732: They were defeated by Franks at Battle of Poitiers. Muslim expansion halted. 756: Umayyad prince Abderramán I escaped from Abbasids of Baghdad and proclaimed himself political (not religiously) independent emir. 929: Abderramán III proclaimed himself caliph. It started a political and cultural splendour, and Córdoba became most important city in West. 1031: Caliphate disappeared and Al-Andalus was divided into TAIFAS (small independent kingdoms). 914: Kingdom of León was created , when Ordoño II moved capital. It had to deal with Muslim attacks and independence of County of Castilla 1035: Fernando inherited and turned Castilla into kingdom 1037: He defeated Bermudo III of León, forming kingdom of Castilla and León. 778: Basques managed to free from Muslims and Franks