Food and Nutrition


the cultivation of aquatic animals and plants, especially fish, shellfish, and seaweed, in natural or controlled marine or freshwater environments; underwater


the deliberate modification of the characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic material.

Blue water

fresh surface water and ground water such as the water in lakes, rivers, and aquifers

Colony Collapse Disorder

the sudden mass disappearance of the majority of worker bees in a colony. The causes of the phenomenon are unclear, though many possible causes or contributory factors have been proposed, such as diseases, pathogens, pesticides, and changes in habitat.


Synthetic fertilisers leach out of the soil and end up in drinking water, creeks, or ponds. These chemicals kill aquatic plants and other organisms. the chemicals stimulate growth of algae, which bloom all at once and deprieve the surrounding water of oxygen.


uncultivated, or planted with crops that ass nutrients to the soil


chemical or natural substances that are added to soil to increase its ability to provide nutrients to crops and increase production

Food system

The food system, in the sense we use it here, includes all those activities involving the production, processing, transport and consumption of food.

Conventional tillage

Conventional tillage is a tillage system using cultivation as the major means of seedbed preparation and weed control.


a plant that has been cultivated or livestock that has been bred for a long period of time

Climate change

long term trends in Earth’s climate due to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, including global warming, more severe weather, and less predictable weather patterns.

Green water

  the precipitation on land that does not run off or recharge the ground water but is stored in the sol or temporarily stays on top of the soil or vegetation

Grey water

the freshwater pollution that can be associated with the production of a product over its full supply chain


the art or practice of garden cultivation and management.


planting different crops in alternating rows in the same field to reduce the likelihood of pests wiping out a whole crop

Low tillage

No-till farming is a way of growing crops or pasture from year to year without disturbing the soil … In some cases low-till methods combine aspects of till and no-till methods.


growing one crop on large trats of land year after year


a substance used for destroying insects or other organisms harmful to cultivated plants or to animals.

Specialty crops

Specialty crops are plants that are intensively cultivated.

Smoke point

The smoke point also known as Burning point of an oil or fat is the temperature at which, under specific and defined conditions, it begins to produce a continuous bluish smoke that becomes clearly visible.


to moisten meat of other foods with a liquid while cooking to add flavor and to prevent drying of the surface.


the action of bringing a liquid to the temperature at which it bubbles and turns to vapor.


to cook on a low heat where liquid just bubbles below the surface.


to cook in a Wok, foods are cut into small pieces and cooked quickly.


to add another touch of food for decorating with colour, texture, or contrast


make smaller or less in amount, degree, or size


 To make shallow cuts in the surface of meat, fish, bread or cakes.


Steaming works by boiling water continuously, causing it to vaporize into steam


 coating of a glossy, often sweet, sometimes savoury, substance applied to food


to cook with a dry-heat method of cooking under a high heat source.


to cook with the dry heat of the oven.


cooking food squarely over the heat source, usually with the lid off.

Cut In

to incorporate a solid fat into dry ingredients.


used to coat wet or moist foods with a dry ingredient prior to cooking.

Fold in

The process of blending a light ingredient, such as beaten egg whites, into a heavier ingredient by lifting from underneath with a spatula or spoon In order to fold ingredients properly, the heavier ingredient is placed at the bottom of a bowl and the lighter above.

Nutrients + Diseases

*CALCIUM: milk products, F: develop&maint of bones+ teeth, nerve transmission. SD: osteoporosis: brittle bone, loss of density ST: calcification of soft tissue, kidney stones

MAGNESIUM: dark veggies, whole grains, natural relaxant+tranquilliver. SD: fatigue, irritability, hign blood pressure. ST: none known, diarrhea

PHOSPHORUS: animal protein sources, whole grains, brewers yeast. Formation of bones+teeth, pH balance in body. SD: not very common unless high doses of antacids or Ca supplements. ST: none but messes up Ca absorption

ZINC: organ meats, brazil nuts&pumpkin seeds. Zinc interferes w copper and iron absorption, maintenance of skins oil glands, prevents acne. SD: loss of taste, white spots on nails, fatigue, dwarfism. ST: deicient due to food proce

*IRON: animal flesh. Formation of hemoglobin (blood carries oxygen) SD: anemia=tired, weak, short of breath, pale. ST: Increased free radical formation

SODIUM: natural sources, seafood, kelp, and sea veggies. Regulation of fluid in body. SD: sodium+water usually lost together which will cause decreased blood pressureand volume+muscle cramps. ST: high blood pressure, water retention

POTASSIUM: broccoli, tomatoes, bananas, avacados. Electrolyte: water baance, aid-base balance, nerve conducivity, heartbeat, muscle contravtion. SD: Hypertension, congestive heart failure

*CHROMIUM: Brewers yeast, whole grains, meat. It improves the uptake of glucose into the cells for energy production (creation of ATP) SD: clearly linked to adult on set diabetes = excessive thirst and hunger, frequent urination

*SELENIUM: Brewers yeast, wheat germ, liver, veggies. Antioxidant, protection from the toxic effects of heavy metals. ST: Increased risk of certain cancers, CVD, kidney disease

*IODINE: cod, sea bass, haddock, perch, iodized salt, sea salt. Essential element in thyroid harmones: T3 and T4 required for cell respiration, metabolism of nutrients to generate atp (responsible for the body;s use of energy). SD: goiter and or hypothyrodism- tired, cold hands and feet, cant lose weight

MANGANESE: nuts and whole grains, egg yolks, seeds, legumes. Healthy joints. SD: Reproductive problems, poor bone and cartilage health

COPPER: whole grains, liver, peas and beans, nuts, dark green veggies. Helps control levels of histamine (allergy inflammation) SD: possible in case of supplementation with zinc alone. ST: neurotic syptoms, irritability, insomnia, nervousness

CHLORINE: salt, seaweed, veggies,celery, lettuce, tomatoes. Electrolyte: helps to maintain the acid-base balce and the water balance of body fluids component of HCI in stomach

*MOLYBDENUM: whole grains, veggies, brewers yeast, organ meats. Past of 3 imp enzyme systems: xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxdase and sulfite oxidase. SD: increased risk of stomach and esophageal cancer. ST: gouty arthritis due to elevated uric acid.


Vit A – Retinol Beta-carotene: yellow, orange, dark green veggies, fish liver, oil, egg yolks, milk products. Eye sight, growth&tissue healing, healthy skin SD: night blindness, dry bumby skin. ST: pressure headaches, nausea+vomittin

Vit D– Calciferol, D3- cholecalciferol: fish liver oils and oily fish, egg yolks. Helps to regulate calcium and phosphorus metabolism. SD: Rickers in children. ST: Excessive thirst, diarrhea, nausea, headaches

Vit E – Tocopherol: veggie seed and nuts oils, wheat germ. SD: no clear deficiency disease. ST: not likely is not stored as readily as the other fat- soluble vitamins

Vit K – K1 Phylloquinone; alfalfa, cabbage, cauli, spinach, pork liver, produced by intestinal bacteria. Blood clotting SD: abnormal bleeding ST: haemolytic, anemia

*B1 – Thiamine: the germ and brain of cereal grains, brewers yeast, avacados, dryfruit, nuts, legumes, pork and liver. Metabolism of glucose, nerve funtion, learning capacity and growth in children SD: beriberi= mental confusion partial paralysis, weakness, weakened immune system

B2- Riboflavin: brewers yeast, dark leafy veggies, whole grain products. Helps cells utilize oxygen efficeintly, maintains good vision, healthy hair, skin and nails. SD: sores at th corner of the month, delayed growth in infants and children

*B3 – Niacin: brewers yeast, legumes, whole grains, avacados, milk eggs. Helps body elease energy from carbohydrates, proteins and fat, contribute to healthy activity of the brain and nervous system. SD: pellagra = mental decline, skin eruptions, digestive and nervous system disturbances.

B5- Pentothenic Acid: readily available in whole foods produced by intestinal flora. Important for adrenal function intimes of stress: “anti stress” vitamin. SD: Insomnia, muscle cramping

B6- Pyridoxine: wheat germ, whole grain, bananas, cabbage. Important for amino acid metabolism and nerve function. SD: A variety of nervous symptom- hyperactivtiy, depression

*B12 – Cobalamin: animal protein, eggs, fermented milk products. Essential for the metabolism of the nervous tissue and the health of the whole nervous system DNA and RNA formation. SD: pernicious anemia,tired pale skin and mucous membranes

*Folic Acid – Methyl Folate: Foliage, sprouts, beans, whole grans, liver, kidney. Formation of hemoglobin, very imp vit in pregnancy to prevent birth deformities. SD: anemia= tiredness, pale skin and muccous membranes, spina and bifida in infants

Biotin: Present in many foods produced by intestinal bactera. Imp for fat metabolism and utilization, prevent or show the greying of hair for treatment of dermatitis and eczema

*Vit C- Absorbic Acid: fresh fruits+veggies, used in the body within 4 hours. Stimulates the immune function, heals wounds and fights infections. SD: Scurvy = bleeding gums, extreme fatigue, varicose veins

CARBOHYDRATES: whole grains, fruits, veggies – broken down to glucose to fuel the body and stabilize blood sugar,

PROTEIN: meat, eggs, dairy, nuts, beans – form muscle, create new enzymes and hormones, made up of amino acids

FAT: nuts, avocado,salmon, olive oil, flaxseed, nut butters – Provides energy, boosts absorption of vitamins, protects organs from damage

Water: essential for waste removal, aids digestion, regulates body temperature, makes up core component of every cell

Vitamins: fruits, veggies:

Minerals: sodium, potassium, chloride, phosphorus, iron, calcium, mag

Calcium: dairy, leafy greens, white beans, sardines, salmon – vital for bone, involved in muscle contraction, nerve unction and blood flow

Sodium: seeds, nuts, vegetables, meats, grains, legumes: regulates fluid balance and blood volume, keeps nerves and muscles working

Pottasium: bananas, spinach, tomatoes, potatoes, avocado, salmon, sweet potatoes: maintains fluid balance, stabilizes blood pressure, necessary for muscle contractions and heart health, regulates pH levels

Omega 3 Fatty Acids: salmon, sardines, chia seeds, flax, walnuts: optimize brain health, help prevent heart disease

Vitamin D: mushrooms, eggs, fish – necessary for absorption of calcium, promotes bone health, strengthens immune system & influences muscle function

FIBRE: to provide roughage to help to keep the food moving through the gut

What is the status of Canada’s dairy industry?

In addition to being world-renowned for their excellence, the Canadian milk and dairy products are recognized for their variety and high-quality.

Which province produces the most chickens?                            Ontario

A friend wants to feed themselves sustainably, what would you suggest?

Grow your own food, Make a compost of kitchen scraps to enhance soils, Prepare your own food using nutritious ingredients, Eat less meat and consider eating smaller portions

Give 3 reasons for declining genetic diversity of crops and livestock and what are their consequences?

Reasons: destruction of original habitats, preferences of farmers and/or consumers for certain varieties and breeds, the development of genetically uniform breeds

Consequences: less able to adapt to local conditions, more vulnerable to epidemics, more dependent on pesticides, herbicides, and fungicides for protection, reduces the genetic basis from which future varieties can be bred.

What are the newest developments in regard to greenhouses?

Building greenhouses on top of existing buildings, eliminating the need for land and providing fresh vegetables in densely populated areas.

What kind of wheat is grown in Canada ad where is it grown?

Largest producer of high protein milling wheat, malting barley – Western Prairies

Which human activities cause global warming/climate change?

Greenhouse gases that are produced by humans

Sustainable food systems and sustainable agriculture must include 3 things to endure long term health of our communities they are:

Environmental sustainability, Economic sustainability, and Social sustainability

What is absorbed in the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine

Stomach: alcohol, water, medication

Small Intestine: proteins,carbohydrates, fats and water, as well as vitamins and minerals.

Large Intestine: absorb water from the remaining indigestible food matter

What does the word essential mean and what are some examples ?

An essential nutrient is a nutrient required for normal body functioning that cannot be synthesized by the body. histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine,phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine.

What is glycogen and where can we find it in the body?

a storage form of glucose in the human liver and muscle it is found in the liver

What is the hormone that is responsible for blood glucose levels? Insulin and glucagon

What is a healing fat?

Healthy fats – monounsaturated – liquid at room temp and polyunsaturated – liquid at room temp

What is a killing fat?                                                            

Trans fats- artificially produced, hydrogenation, and saturated fats – solid at room temp

What are monosaccharides?

simple sugars consist of one sugar unit that cannot be further broken down into simpler sugars. 3 kinds of monosaccharides: glucose, fructose, galactose.

Name all the disaccharides and the monosaccharides that make them?

Simple sugars: monosaccharides- glucose, fructose, galactose: grapes, honey, fruit, juices. Disaccharides: maltose(malt sugar, cereal, grains), sucrose (maple syrup, white sugar) and lactose (milk sugar)

What are the properties of unsaturated fats?                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Are not straight, have kinks, contain double bonds, are unstable, highly reactive w/ heat, light, oxygen. Do go rancid easily

What are the properties of unsaturated fats?                                                                                                       Are are straight, have no kinks, contain single bonds only, are stable, slow to react w/ heat, light, oxygen. Do not go rancid easily
List all the functions of the liver                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Hormone regulation, blood glucose regulation, synthesis and storage of nutrients, bile drainage, Detoxification, Manufactures and processes.  List all the functions of fibre in the body.                                                                                                                                                                                                                      enables the body to eliminate waste and maintain homeostasis.                  

Why is soluble fibre important?                                                                                                                                                                                                            Helps soften stool so it can pass through the GI tract more easily, binds to substances like cholesterol and sugar, preventing or slowing their absorption into the blood, regulate blood sugar levels

Why is insoluble fibre important?   
Humans cannot digest cellulose nor do we have the bacteria to do so but it is still very important in the colon, without it, most of the fermentation would take place in the top of the colon

How does the food industry use carbs?

the food industry, both fast-releasing and slow-releasing carbohydrates are utilized to give foods a wide spectrum of functional attributes, including increased sweetness, viscosity, bulk, coating ability, solubility, consistency, texture, body, and browning capacity.

Which lipid is so important to life that no disease is associated with it?


What is the purpose of chewing foods?
The physical process of chewing food in your mouth helps to break down larger particles of food into smaller particles. This helps to reduce stress on the esophagus and helps the stomach metabolize your food. When you chew each mouthful properly, you also release a lot of saliva, which contains digestive enzymes.
What is bile and why is it important?                                                                                            A bitter greenish- brown soap like substance made of bile salts cholesterol and lecithin. It assists in the digestion and absorption of fats, and it is responsible for the elimination of certain waste products from the body.

What causes type 2 diabetes?

when the body becomes resistant to insulin or when the pancreas stops producing enough insulin, it is hereditary.

What functions do fats play in the body?

Fat is an essential part of your diet. It provides energy, absorbs certain nutrients and maintains your core body temperature.

What does the body need proteins for?
Protein is an important component of every cell in the body. … Your body usesprotein to build and repair tissues. You also use protein to make enzymes, hormones, and other body chemicals. Protein is an important building block of bones, muscles, cartilage, skin, and blood.

Which disease is associated with a protein deficiency?


What roles do carbohydrates play in the body?

1. Providing energy and regulation of blood glucose                      

2. Sparing the use of proteins for energy

3.Breakdown of fatty acids and preventing ketosis                         

4. Biological recognition processes                                 

5. Flavor and Sweeteners

6. Dietary fiber

What are enzymes?

Enzymes are proteins, which make life possible. They are needed for every chemical reaction that occurs in our body

Enzymatic reactions are affected by:

Temperature, pH, water

What is the state of farms in canada today?

Active Site: an enzyme that binds to a protein or other substance during a reaction

Cholesterol: a substance containing a lot of fat in the body tissue and blood of all animals

Coagulation: an action or process of a liquid especially blood, changing to a solid or semi solid state

Complete protein: contains an adequate proportion of all 9 of the essential amino acids

Degree of saturation: ratio of the humidity ratio of moist air – to the humidit ratio of saturated moist air at the same temp and pressure

Denature: destroy the properties of protein by heat and acidity

Double bonds: a chemical bond in which 2 pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms

EPA/DHA: found in fish seafood and fish oils

Essential amino acid: cannot be synthezised from scrath by the organsim

Fatty acids: a carboxylic acid consisting of a hydrocarbon chain and a terminal carboxyl group, especially any of those occuring as esters in fats and oils.

HDL: high density lipoprotein – takes cholesterol to liver for prcessing moving it out the body

Incomplete protein: low or lacking in one or more of the amino acids

LDL:Low density lipoprotein- takes cholesterol to cell membrane

Lipid: substance that is insoluble in water and soluble in alchohal

Membrane selectivity: which substances can drift or be pulled into cells from outside and which substances from within cells will drift or be pushed out.

Monosaturated fat: fats are siply fat molectules that have one unsaturated carbon bond in the molecule, also called double bond.

Phospholipids: a lipid containing a phosphate group in its molecule

Photosynthesis: plant uses energy from sunlight to produce its food

Polyunsaturated fat: simply fat molecules that have more than one unsaturated carbon bond in the molecule

Rancid fats: rank, unpleasant, stale smell or taste through decomposition

Saccharide: sugar

Trans fat: unhealthy substance, made through the chemical process of hydrogenation of oils.

Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small Intestine Large Intestine

Teeth Tongue Salivary glands Liver Gall bladder