TEMA 5: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION: Thanks to our senses we are aware of what is going around us, which helps us to survive. We are constantly hearing sounds, seeing figures, tasting food, smelling aromas and feeling hot or cold. Sensiyat reaches our senses is made up of sensations and perception. Sensations are psycho-physical phenomena. They occur when our sensory organs are stimulated. Perception is the interpretation of the senations captured by our senses. Both are selective. Our perception makes a second selection of stimuli wen its constructs the object that has been perceived but doesn´t provide us with a faithful reflection of reality, but with the result of a selection, organisation and interpretation of the information provided by the senses.TEMA 6: ANTHROPOLGY:Immanuel Kant stated that all philosophy is anthropology because human beings are the object of all philosophical research and study. Every philosophical reflection focuses os a specific aspect of ourselves, although it also possible to reflect on human beings as a whole. This general reflection on humankind is what we today call Anthropology. Anthropology states that human beings are multifaceted, and defines three areas of research: Physical anthropology( is concerned with the biological aspects of human beings) Cultural anthropology( studies the human societies and cultures, and their development. Philosophical anthropology( studies the origin and essence of human beings). Each of the three branches of anthropology has its own research method. In physical anthropology, methods associated with biology are used. Cultural anthropology is the only discipline which has its own methods, which is divided into two parts: Field work(the researcher lives with the human beings or she is studying for longs period of time, and, and blends in with their environment).Participant observation( The researcher records everything that is going on and is relevant to his or her research. The researcher is not a neutral observer, but an active participant in what is happening). Furthermore, cultural anthropology bases itself on two fundamental principles: The principle of cultural diversity( No culture is superior to another.This avoid ethnocentrism and encourages a tolerant attitude towards cultures which are different from the researcher’s own culture). The principle of the psychic unity of humankind( This states that the cognitive makeup of human beings is essentially the same for all humankind.This ensures there is no racism in anthropology).THEORY OF EVOLUTION::biology was dominated for two scientific theories: Fixim( states that all biological species that we know today have remained unchanged since their origin). Creationism( defends the idea that all biological species were created by god). The first person to suggest a well-argued theory of evolution was the French naturalist Lamarck(His theory was known as transformism. This theory suggested that complex organisms evolved from simpler forms of life because they had to adapt to their environment by modifying their structure and their way of life) Charles Darwin:( Proposed natural selection as the main explanation of the evolutionary process. He believed that species not individuals, adapted themselves to their environments but this theory did not suggest that there was a tendency towards perfection. The changes that organisms undergo give rise to the random appearance of a new species.

HOMANISATION: The publication of Darwin’s theory of evolution caused an enormous commotion.The implications it had on our understanding of the origin of human beings generated a great ideal of expectation.Darwin’s theory of evolution ultimately meat that human beings had evolved from inferior biological species, related to the great apes. The process of evolution, from the first hominids to Homo sapiens, presented two clearly differentiated facets: hominisation and humanisation.Hominisation: (is the biological process of genetically-transmitted anatomical and physiological changes,which gives rise to the appearance of new species hominids) A large number of factors have influences the process of evolution which has led to modern-day human beings. However, we are going to focus on some factors that have been present throughout the process, are interrelated and have global repercussions. Homanisation consists of 4 concepts: Bipedalism (consists that the ability to walk on the back,legs,unlike other quadrupeds).The larger brains (consists a significant increase in brain capacity) the development of a vocal tract( the need for the physical capacity to develop language.) The last the delay in maturity(  the need for time to adapt to the environment-hominis more immature at birth.CULTURE OF NATURAL BEINGS :  During the process of humanization, there appeared behaviours whose origin cannot be solely attributed to genetic inheritance.Human beings generated a new reality-their own world in which to live.We call this culture.The development of this new reality was not carried out by individuals, but by organised groups of individuals, forming a society.Natures, culture and society make up the three dimensions of human beings. As a general rule, nature gives every biological species a series of instincts which provide them  with the patterns of behaviour they need to adapt to the environment they inhabit.There is one species where this rule does not apply: human beings are born to unadapted to their environment. Therefore, the instincts other species are born with are missing, meaning we have to adapt to our environment by ourselves. Culture is humankind’s response to this need for adaption. We use culture to transform the natural environment to make it more it more habitable and more suited to our way of life.Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge , belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and acquired by man as a member of society.From Tylñor´s definition we can infer that it is not the individual, but rather the society the individual forms part of that permits its members to adapt  central to the nature of human beings as are their anatomical of physiological characteristics.All human specific behavior patterns acquired during the evolution must have been learnt, as they are not part of our genetic inheritance. The communal living and organisation created the conditions for this learning to take place. Despite the importance of society and culture, some thinkers believe that they are products f human nature which are ultimately conflictive with in. Jean-Jacques Rousseau believed that culture complicated human existence because it distanced human beings from natural happiness they would otherwise have enjoyed. Sigmund Freud considered culture to be a source of dissatisfaction in as much as its strict rules prevented the satisfaction of the human beings natural instincts.CULTURAL DIVERSITY=ACTITUDES: Given that culture is the fruit of our adaptation to our environment, and that human beings inhabit several different natural environments, its logical that there is an enormous  variety of cultures. However, these different realities are not unchangeable and they are not isolated from one other- they are in permanent contact.This has brought about a phenomenon known as acculturation, which is when one culture assimilation and integrates elements of other cultures. Acculturation has always existed, but it has recently grown significantly as a result of the development of transport and of cultural diffusion through the media. This has has the three noticeable consequences: -The lessening of cultural differences, in many cases, they have become noticeable.-The increase of cultural differences within the same society, caused by the varying degree to which aspects of neighbouring cultures and taken on. -The appearance of multiculturalism, which consists of people from different cultures who have kept their differing attitudes, customs and values, but who live together in the same society. Cultural diversity and contact between cultures are an unavoidable reality.This means we must adopt an appropriate attitude when there is contact between cultures. In general terms, throats history there have been  using considerations and values that are specific to the cultures.- Interculturalism defends interculturality, a phenomenon of communication and interaction between cultures in which no culture is considered to be superior to any other. However, this does not mean that all cultural practices are accepted just because there is a social group that supports them. Interculturalism believe that it is both possible and desirable to establish limits for cultural practices, based on universal values that all human beings should respects.CULTURAL UNIVERSALS:are the elements that are common to all, or to the large majority of, known cultures. They are: Language(All societies have developed some form of symbol-based communication through language.Linguistic communication is very important because its permit the flow of information, the expression of emotions and learning). Art(artistic expression can be found in all cultures and is always been a way to channel or need to represent our reality and express our feelings)Myths(Are present in all cultures and they are similar from one culture to another. They serve two basic purpose: To make people understand things that they cannot understand using reason and to give social institutions a sacred origin, in such a way as to guarantee social order)Religion(is a cultural universal on which a deity plays an essential role.In religion the gods are an end in themselves, and not a means of expressing or justifying something else. The main purpose is to connects human with the deity)Rites(Is the repetition of a series of acts following an invariable and established pattern. the purpose is to strengthen the identification of an individual with the group he or she belongs to and to reinforce social structure.)Taboos(Are general prohibitions that apply all members of specific culture with strictly regulated exceptions.  

en three attitudes towards cultural diversity:- Ethnocentrism is the belief that one’s own culture is superior to all others.Other cultures are evaluated according to how much or how little they differ from this culture.-Cultural relativism maintains that there is no single pattern by which we can measure the development of a culture. All cultures should be judged and analys.

TEMA 7: THE HUMAN BEING IN ANCIENT HISTORY: The Ancient Philosophers did not try to understand the human beings as individuals. They focus on people as members of a polis, who themselves what role they should play within the society to which they belong.Socrates was the first philosopher that focus his attention on human beings. They appropriate “know thyself” which is inscribed on the entrance to the temple of Apollo in Delphos.Socrates believed that knowing ourselves we can discover the human beings inside us and we can come now the human being in general.For socrates disciple , Plato, human beings are made up of a soul and a body. The soul has a rational nature is immortal and is trapped inside the body. Its main function is to control passions and purify itself. When the body dies, the soul ascends to a higher reality were perfects models of all natural beings captured by our senses are found.  The body, on the other hand is matter and mortal.Plato believed that soul is divided into three parts: Reason, which is responsible for knowledge and is governing the other two parts, spirit, which is the source of noble passions and appetite the origin of our ignoble passions.All humans have these three parts, but one is the dominant. This also form the basis of god of social organisation that have three basic needs in all societies. Government, defence and survival.For Aristotle, as disciple of Plato´s, the human being is a natural being that the nature is perfect. This perfection consists of the realisation of one’s essence . For aristotle the main characteristic of human essence are rationality and sociability. As a rational being,man strives to understand reality. As a social being, man need to live with other human beings in a organised and structured community.Hellenistic period of Greek culture,two schools of  moral philosophy have offered different concepts of man: Stoicism and Epicureanism that rejected the platonic and aristotelian distinction between the materials and materials parts of humans being. It is from each school´s way of understanding happiness yacht we know how they understood human beings: Epicureanism: the happiness is the pleasure. Stoicism: the happiness was attained by living in harmony with nature. Human nature is essentially rational. Happiness consists in living in accordance to reason.THE ENLIGHTENMENT : the early modern ages reached its height with the enlightenment. Enlightenment thinkers aimed to elevate the authority, self-esteem and the standard of culture of human beings, so as improve their quality of life.Their characteristics:-Faith in human reason: The evils that humanity suffers have the origin in an insufficient use of reason. If this situation is reserved and the free of reason is encouraged, inequality can be conquered and everyone can benefit from a greater and faster development.-Universal human rights: Enlightenment thinkers fervently defended the existence of a set of laws which have the origin in nature and which provide all human beings with basic rights that make everyone equal.-Importance of education: A great pedagogical effort is required for human beings to use their reason without fear. The most well-known result of this work is the encyclopedia.HUMAN FREEDOM AND RESPONSIBILITY: Freedom is the capacity of subject to choose between various option without any external force preventing him or her from doing so. We can distinguish between two levels of freedom: Internal freedom: This is capacity of a subject to choose between different possibilities in questions that affect him or her. It is the basis of moral conduct. External Freedom:This is the absence of external obstacles which prevent action.This type of freedom is exclusive to actions and does not affect choice. -philosophical anthropology is only  concerned with internal freedom. The philosophical problem posed by this kind of freedom is whether it exists. Opposing positions are taken by determinists, who deny the existence of human freedom, and inderterminits,who, on the other hand, affirm that man is free. -Existentialism (is one of the most radical inderminist currents. If defends the idea that at birth each of us is equipped only with freedom. This freedom is what allows us to choose  between different possibilities and, therefore, to develop our essence. However, every time we make a choice, we renounce other options,which means we lose freedom as we develop) -Human freedom, has its counterpoint in responsibility, which is the obligation to accept the consequences of our action or lack of action. If we are free to choose to do or not to do something,we are responsible for what which we do or do not do. As determinists deny the existence of human freedom, they cannot hold human beings responsible for their actions. On the other hand, indeterminists hold human beings responsible for their actions because they consider them to be free agents. The problem in this case is determining the degree of responsibility of someone who acts freely, given that our actions may have unforeseen consequences.