Objective of creativity

  • To enhance creative potential by strengthening various mental abilities and shape an ordinary learner to become an extraordinary learner.
  • To expose the learners to creative problem solving exercises by developing integrative intelligence to become managers with creative skills.
  • To help the learners to become thoughtful managers by understanding workplace creativity and ways of harnessing (tie together) it for organizational excellence
  • To expand the knowledge horizon of individual creativity and corporate creativity to transform the living conditions of the creativity

What is creativity?

  • Creativity is nothing but inventiveness or vision.
  • A creative poet writes unique poems, a creative architect design a unique home; a creative scientist develops unique formula. But there is more to creativity than uniqueness.
  • For something to be creative it must at the least be novel and appropriate to the context.


  • Creativity is concerned with producing unique ideas, concepts, and ways of doing things that would not have occurred normally or evolved routinely.
  • Creativity is a resource of high competitive values, but is underutilized in most organization.

Convergent and Divergent Thinking

  • As originally understood, convergent thinking consisted of those abilities (good memory, logical ability etc.) that helped a person to the right solution in problems that had one right solution.
  • Convergent thinking as consisting also of mechanism of thought that help the person to converge to a good definition of the problem when the problem is complex to analyze the problem in depth, converge to a solution.

Clarificatory mechanism

  • A  problem it may be recalled, is a puzzle or an unmet goal or an unwanted effect often accomplished in ill-defined problems by insufficient information as to what is wrong, why it is wrong, how to set it right, and/or what would constitute setting the problem right.
  • So that clarification mechanisms are among the first to be evoked.
  • Verbalizing the problem putting it in to language
  • Defining key terms of the problem
  • Listing the components of the problems
  • Somewhat more sophisticated clarifictory mechanism are attempts to display the problem solution through charts, diagrams etc.

2. Analytical Mechanisms

  • Analysis involved several related processes.

1. Problem forecasting: one process is that of breaking a problem down into its components

2. Seeking relationship and components such as through establishing a priority among them.

3. Identifying the steps to a possible solutions

 4. transforming components of problem into more abstracts.

3. Synthesis Aiding Mechanism

  • Synthesis is the act of seeking a pattern among components, a whole in the parts, a relating of the previously unrelated, a unity in the diversity.
  • This mechanism is used to solve the complex problem.

4.Optimizing Mechanisms

  • Optimizing is the process of refining a solution is of acceptable quality.
  • It involves a No. of mechanisms, such as substitution of parts, addition of components, deletion of unnecessary ingredients (elements or components), modification of elements
  • Alteration of the relations between the components.

Divergent Thinking

  • Divergent thinking involves search for solutions that may involve substantial departures from the beaten track.
  • It involves using approaches or perspectives that may be uncommon or unusual
  • Often resulting in a variety of solutions. Some of which may be quite novel.

Creativity intelligence

Enhancing Creativity Intelligence

  • The understanding and measurement of the endlessly multy-diemential human intelligence is an unfinished agenda.
  • Initially around a century earlier, some tests were developed to measure the intelligence.
  • They measured a number of competencies required for solving problem. Such as figural, verbal (spoken), and arithmetical logical.
  • This  
  • This essentially encompassed the ability to find, through logic, the answers to problems with one right answer.
  • They came to be called intelligence quotient or IQ tests.
  • In convergent and divergent thinking mechanism we learn good first approximation of creative intelligence, but here we need to probe further into mental abilities that enable us to practice this mechanism effectively, and indeed go beyond them.

Determinants of Creativity

Process- Roots of Human Creativity-

  1. Biological Root of Creativity
  • The body and mind as the root of human creativity.
  • There is close relationship between human being and nature. Nature stimulates the activities of human being for problem solving.
  • Nature also influences the intelligence, living organism, sexual deprivation, hunger etc.
  • Creativity is closely associated with novelty and curiosity for the purpose of powerful motivation of human behavior.
  • Physical organs like brain, hands, lags, etc are directed properly by the biological sources of human creativity.
  • Compares with animal’s activities eg. Nest, food, shelter preventions which is always better than cure animals knows well. 

2.Mental Roots

  • Emotions, ideas, consciousness, conflicts, psycho factors. These are the mental roots of creativity.
  • Subconscious roots of creativity
  • It leads to motivation +ve thinking is the root cause of novel ideas, multiple options, trial-an-error thinking. ()
  • Protection of ego
  • Logical way of lifestyle leads to locating to creativity (standard of thinking)
  • Feeling of Inferiority  complex (weakness):-
  • Sense of depression and restlessness
  • Sharing experiences of other because experience is the best teacher.
  • Creativity relates with the answer the following questions. i.e. why, what, how, when or where.
  1. Spiritual and social roots of creativity
  • “Mind setup” is associated with spiritual creativity
  • Idea of scarifying for a particular object
  • It is considered that noble ideology is the major source of creativity. It includes human brotherhood and sisterhood, sense of divine and doing good for others without any expectation.
  •  A plain idea of goodness and helpfulness, love of humanity, moral sense of right or wrong,  good or bad etc.
  • It is a tool for vanishing selfishness, egotism, sensuality, and aggressiveness etc.
  • Spiritual creativity seems to be more extensive phenomenon including new religion, ethics, humanistic ideologies, spiritual art (drama) and literature (gita, ramayana etc.)    
  1. Social Roots Of Creativity
  • Varity of Social Creativity
  • Civilization is a movement and not a condition, a voyage and not a harbor.
  • There some societies these are as bellow.
  • Conservative (traditional) society
  • It is one type of inheritance
  • E.g. Art, crafts, games, professional business,
  • society tends to change incrementally
  •  Skills, knowledge Inculcated from one generation to another generation.
  • Entrepreneurial (Industrial) Society
  • Eg. Ambani
  • It is tolerant of innovations and changes that render current technologies business knowledge systems.
  • An entrepreneurial society’s role models are pioneers (Columbus, vascod-gama), innovators, social reformers, revolutionaries, social critics and business entrepreneurs.
  • They may try to develop and pioneer new technology. Put up the words biggest plants, harness fusion energy, and evolve new art forms.
  • So most forms of creativity is (conceptual,elaborative,communicative,entrepreneurial etc)
  • Field of creativity the art, science, professions, and business.

III) Authoritarian society

  • Demanding total obedience and refusing to allow people freedom to act as they wish.
  • They far out-number the liberal, free societies. In the 20th century the fascist regime of germany, italy were examples of Authoritarian Society

IV) Democratic Society

Forms of Creativity

1.Essence Creativity

  • Essence (sprit, core) creativity is distilled (refine):-
  • Let us probe essence creativity in the field of creativity. Earlier, people thought of creativity as a divine in nature.
  • The notion (concept) is that creativity is a very human and widely distributed ability.
  • Essence creativity usually requires search out the “truth” from large, messy (confused ) load of information.

2.Elaborative (Complex) Creative

  • If essence creative is the brief expression of a novel idea, issue, principle, viewpoint or law.
  • Elaborative creative is the distinctive elaboration of idea, viewpoint, principle, law, or issue in ways that render it not only novel but useful or suitable in its situation.
  • Darvine gave a new idea to the world. Evolution of species on the earth is the consequence of the survival of the fittest mutations. This is the eg. Of essence creativity
  • Whereas how may it be creatively elaborated? One way is to explore? Or rather, how mutation take place
  • Newton’s law of universal gravitation

3. Expressive

  • Some thoughts, poems, slogans and some thrum, advertising and design, are expressed by some one in his live condition, but they are not expressed at that time. After some months, years it can be seen in effect.
  • Long years ago India made a tryst with destiny and the hour has come to redeem her pledge. At the stroke of the midnight hour when the word sleeps, India will awake for life and freedom.
  • Gregor Johann Mendel (July 20, 1822[1] – January 6, 1884)

4.Existential : Relating to existence

  • According to Maslow’s theory he said that I can see no evil in a baby …it is a person…. In fact, it is to be a very good person … one bearing many of the hard own characteristics of self actualizing persons, whose great achievement is to become child like again.

5. Entrepreneurial creativity

  • one who undertakes an enterprise at personal finance of risk
  • Creative entrepreneurship is the practice of setting up a business – or setting yourself up as self-employed – in one of the creative industries. The focus of the creative entrepreneur differs from that of the typical business entrepreneur or, indeed, the social entrepreneur in that he/she is concerned first and foremost with the creation and exploitation of creative or intellectual capital. Essentially, creative entrepreneurs are investors in talent – their own and/or other people’s.

6. Exponential. (Advocate, fan, Model) creativity

  • Exponential growth occurs when the growth rate of the value of a mathematical function is proportional to the function’s current value. Exponential decay occurs in the same way when the growth rate is negative. In the case of a discrete domain of definition with equal intervals it is also called geometric growth or geometric decay (the function values form a geometric progression). The exponential growth model is also known as the Malthusian  growth model.

                                     Unit II CREATIVE PERSONALITY

Traits (Distinguishing quality) Congenial(kindred disposition ) to Creativity

  • Many psychologist have attempt to identify those personality traits that distinguish creative persons from relatively less creative individuals.
  • The hope is to identify those traits that contribute to creativity.
  • There are two groups for selecting these traits.
  • One known to be creative on the basis of some test or criterion, and the other scoring low on a test of creativity.
  • If there is statistically significant difference on any of the measured personality traits, that traits is supposed to be related to creativity.
  • But there are many ability related to creativity such as fluency, flexibility, originality, elaboration ability, problem sensitivity, and so forth.

Trait Number 1 – Energy

  • Energy manifestations of the creative personality type
  • The creative person has a wide range of energy potential, yet they are often found to be resting quietly.  They might work for hours and hours on end while focusing on a creative endeavor, yet feel overly exhausted after only a few hours of shopping.

Trait Number 2 – Intelligence

  • Creative personality types tend to be naïve yet smart at the same time. Their degree of “smartness” is in question. More than likely, a “g factor” or core general intelligence, is high in creative people. In turn, they are able to use their general intelligence in a cooperative and highly creative way, thereby gleaning every morsel of intelligence from their minds.

Trait Number 3 – Self-Discipline

  • The creative mind combines discipline and playfulness, or irresponsibility and responsibility. It goes without saying that a light, playful attitude is standard among creative individuals. Yet this certain playfulness does not do well without an antithesis of endurance, doggedness, and perseverance.

Trait Number 4 – Imagination

  • The creative personality type tends to alternate between fantasy and imagination, and a solid sense of reality. Great science and great art require a leap of the imagination, exploring a realm where things are quite different from the present world.

Trait Number 5 – Introversion and Extroversion

  • Creative people are both introverted and extroverted. At any given point in time, they could be one or the other. Sometimes they might enjoy being is huge crowds, watching a show, engaging in a whirlwind of activity with others, or yelling at the top of their lungs on the sidelines of a ballgame.

Trait Number 6 – Pride

  • Creative personality types are proud and humble at the same time. It is interesting to meet some famous artist, expecting them to be superficial or arrogant, only to find that they are rather shy and will not accept praise for what they do. When a renown painter is celebrated for his work, he may stand before the crowd and say, “All I did was splatter a little paint here and there and put a frame around it.”

Trait Number 7 – Gender Roles

  • Creative personality types, to a certain extent, escape the rigorous stereotyping of gender roles. When a test of feminine and masculine roles are administered to young people, there emerges a trend of opposites among the creative minded. Girls who are talented and creative tend to be tougher and more dominant than other girls, while creative boys show less aggression and more sensitivity than their peers.

Trait Number 8 – Conservation and Rebellion

  • The creative person has a tendency to be both conservative and rebellious, traditional and extraordinary, “normal” and “abnormal.” These individuals recognize that failing to stretch one’s boundaries causes stagnation, leaving the world unchanged or unimproved. At the same time, they know that constant risk-taking without consideration for past values rarely fosters novelty or improvement.

Trait Number 9 – Passion

  • The majority of creative individuals are exceptionally passionate about what they do, but at the same time, they can display an extreme degree of objectivity as well. Without passion, the artist loses interest in difficult creative tasks. Without objectivity, the creation lacks credibility and may not be very good.

Trait Number 10 – Sensitivity and Openness

  • The sensitivity and openness of creative people often sets them up for pain and suffering, while at the same time rewarding them with a huge amount of enjoyment. They are often lone rangers at the front of their artistic discipline, leaving them vulnerable and exposed. Eminence often invites vicious attacks and criticism. When a creative person has invested a large amount of their time and energy into creating a masterpiece, or a medical researcher in creating a breakthrough vaccine for AIDS, it hurts them deeply when nobody cares.

Motivation and Creativity

  • The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal
  • Motivation exists at various levels. Some need are very specific, such as the desire to get a particular job or pass a particular examination or the hunger to read or write a particular book.
  • But often needs are the real sign of broader and deeper needs, such as the need for financial security or status or personal growth.
  • Psychologist generally try to measure the less specific but more basic needs and motives of people because of the belief that these enduring motives explain not just one particular choice but a whole pattern of choices.

Strategies for Motivation for being creative

  • A person’s motivation is a result of many factors
  1. Genetic inheritance is one such force.
  2. Upbringing (teaching something to child) is another major force as are education, friendship, job etc.
  1. Awareness
  • Awareness initiates action. It is necessary to know the strength of the current security motivation, and the current desired changes in these.
  • One need to review one’s childhood, the encouragement and discouragement to certain patterns of behavior provided by one’s elder, teachers, or payment.
  • One need to identify the forces in one’s job, home, and social situations that strengthen or weaken one’s security and creative motivations.

2. Desired change

  • With awareness comes the need to do something about the statuesque.
  • If the desire is to reduce security motivation and the fare fullness and defensiveness. That go with it, and to increase creative motivation and the risk taking and experimental attitudes that go with it. In short risk create energy. 

3. Role Model

  • It is useful to identify person who was earlier like oneself but by an effort of will has changed in the direction one wishes to go.
  • There are many such lives to draw upon for inspiration.
  • Eg mahatma Gandhi


  • You act creative you might develop an interest in creativity.
  • Doing something different opens new vistas and lead to a reassessment of one’s ability.

5. Reinforcement

  • There are two types of reinforcement, primary and secondary.
  • Primary reinforcement are food which satisfies hunger and secondary are job advancement recognition, praise etc.

Conductive Environment

Formative Environment and Creativity

  • Childhood Home Environment and Creativity:
  • The home environment always influence on the person. There are several dimensions of the child’s home environment. Does it repress creative behavior or is it encouraging?
  • Is it dull or monotonous (dull) environment or is it stimulating?
  • Formative assessment or diagnostic testing is a range of formal and informal assessment procedures employed by teachers during the learning process in order to modify teaching and learning activities to improve student attainment.
  • There is also evidence that children who get special attention, such as first born, and the high expectations that go with attention, tend to be more creative, although this could be a chicken-and-egg problem.
  • Parents intensely involved in their children’s talent development, who go out of their way to find the best tutors, also tend to have creative children.
  • Research on how childhood home environment affects creativity, stimulate the child, exposes the child to diverse ideas and views, raises the child aspiration to be distinctive.  And so forth nurtures the child’s creativity
  • Schooling and creativity:
  • School can be exhilarating experience of learning, growth and creative activity.
  • It can also, of course be a nightmare (frightening) of systematic snuffing (killing) out of divergent thinking and activity.

Adult Environment-

  • Environmental Adult Education Defined
  • Like many other fields of study, environmental adult education has many definitions attached to it. However, it can be recognized as a “hybrid outgrowth of the environmental movement and adult education, combining an ecological orientation with a learning paradigm to provide a vigorous educational approach to environmental concerns

Environmental Stimulants

  • Stimulating
  • A stimulating environment arouses creativity.
  • This is environment in which there is always something new to do, and where one is frequently called upon to respond to new task and challenges.
  • But a monotonous environment dampens creativity.
  • E.g.  In one, study groups of children were show there creativity as compare to those children who are always in control or in suppress environment.
  •  but the stimulating environment is not sufficient for creativity there must be something that always stimulate to the person.
  • Finally, competition that poses challenges increases divergent thinking.
  • Nurturance
  • An environment that encourages and rewards creativity, innovation and experimentation stimulate creativity.
  • But one that ignores creative efforts or penalizes them, dampens it.
  • In an experiment with four-year-old children, Savora found that children who were rewarded with a toy for being creative tended to exhibit greater creativity than children that were not rewarded.
  • T. S. Eliot thought that a Nobel prise would destroy his creativity.
  • Teresa Arnabile, working on this, and she recommended that “intrinsic” rewards rather than monetary or ‘extrinsic’ rewards for stimulating ‘real’ creativity.
  • She put it, “intrinsic motivation is conductive to creativity, but extrinsic motivation is determental.
  • When people are primarily motivated to do some creative activity by their own interest in and enjoyment of that activity, they may be more creative than they are when primarily motivated by some goal imposed on them by others.
  • Optimal tension
  • An environment that does not include defensiveness and fearfulness by premature criticism or evaluation, encourages creativity.
  • One the other hand, a tension including environment in which any new idea is quickly dismissed as half-backed, stupid impractical or wrong discourages creativity.
  • E. g. brainstorming group is more effective than the groups that evaluate their ideas to the deferred evaluation principle.
  • Hadley found however that moderate anxiety helps creativity no anxiety or high level of anxiety tend to depress it.
  • In general, therefore, creativity tends to be greater when people involved in a task are relaxed but alert, and not feeling defensive.
  • Constructive feedback
  • An environment in which there are opportunity for feedback and though but constructive evaluation of ways of approaching complex problems and outputs of constructive efforts, encourages creativity.
  • But one in which there is laissez-faire dampens creativity, or make it trivial.
  • Means in distractive feedback it will blame you on your mystiques so the problem solving capacity can not become creativity.

Blocks to Creativity

  • Research suggests that the creativity is characterized by spontaneity, curiosity,  love of complexity playfulness and so forth.
  • But many fears and disability may block a person from exhibiting these characteristics.
  • While creativity related motives impel a person to do something different, these partly unconscious blocks tends to prevent a person from acting or thinking in creative or unconventional ways.

1.Fear of failure

  • The acceptance of failure as necessary part of life is the best way to get rid of this block.
  • No child would learn to walk if it was excessively afraid to fallowing. Failure is as necessary as success in learning new skills. Failure simply means that we have to try harder, or that we have to take a new approach.
  • It does not mean that we are no good.
  • This may failure can be a tremendous score of information and powerful spur to growth and important.

2. Allergy to ambiguity

  • Ambiguity, uncertainty or complexity is discomforting to many of us. But some are positively allergic to it.

3. Touchiness

  • Touchiness is the fear of humility and rejection. This is a serious blocks in those activities which involves collaboration with other individuals.
  • People who are very touchy tend to have difficulty in approaching other for assistance or guidance.

4. Conformity

  • Conformity creeps into us because of the fear of flouting social norms, the fear of social disapproval. Inability to search the resources.
  • Conformity permits a relatively risks-free existence through the acceptance of the status quo.

5. Resource myopia

  • The inability to see the resources at our disposal is a common block to creativity. We are often unaware of our own strengths.
  • The resources at our disposal are usually much larger than we image.

6. Starved sensibility

  • It will create emotion that will create more road blocks.

7. Rigidity

  • Failure to block changing scenario of the civilization
  • Flexibility should be necessary

Strategies for unblocking Creativity.

  • Some of the major steps that can be taken for unblocking are outlined below.

1. Awareness

  • Most people are to an extent, aware of their blocks.
  • But some blocks are very deep roots in the defense of the personality. A useful step may be to ask someone who know you intimately to complete my temperament (nature, character) with respect to you. You can then jointly look at the data.
  • Equally, you can identify those items where both of you are agree what your blocks are.

2. Analysis and diagnosis

  • Having made a tentative identification of one’s block or blocks it is desirable to study each in some depth.
  • One could recalling the feelings that are aroused when the block is operating think back to those experiences that could have caused the blocks. Analyze those of your habits that strengthen the block, etc.
  • As part of the process of analysis and diagnosis, it may be useful to discuss your block with an individual who also had the block but was able to get rid of it.
  • People who have come up the hard way may be good mentors for unblocking purpose.
  •  Eg.Drunker

3. Desire to unblock

  • People retain blocks because they provide some security from the real or imaginary onslaughts of the world.
  • Sometime we often get comfortable with our blocks.
  • So we need to develop a strong desire to unblocks
  • Meeting people who have freed themselves from their blocks and leading a much richer life, or reading about them should help. There are some mantras, chanting which help you.
  • E.g. Donkey

4. Help from a Creditable (trustworthy) source

  • Awareness of, and information about, a block is useful, but often not enough.
  • A person one trusts and admire such as a mentor can very useful in overpowering the block.
  • Perhaps you can get him or her to take advice and encouragement so that whenever you feel depress at not making progress. You can play back the tape and get fortified.
  • E.g. GURU

5. Inoculation

  • Often it help to get rid of a block by stages. If one has fear of water, one first enters shallow water and only after some inclusion one goes deeper and deeper.
  • E.g. Swimming.

6. Rewards

  • As psychologists have often demonstrated, rewarded of new behavior patterns leads to their becoming durable.
  • One can arrange with a friend to reward one’s attempts at unblocking.

7. Goal setting

  • After some success at unblocking, it may be useful to set some goals and targets that assume the absence of the block.
  • Thus, one may ask  of oneself, “ if I had no fear of failure, what should be striving? What should I be doing?


Creative Manager

  • Creative Manager are involved in presenting the identity of an organization in various media. They determine the best ways to represent the company’s profile by designing and developing projects that are suitable for online and digital marketing.
  • Key Responsibilities
  • Executive creative Manager are responsible for providing creative insights to the company in designing and developing their projects. Their main responsibility is to design high-level concepts for the company or its clients (internal or external), and creating designs as per the client’s requirement.

Creative Problems Solving:-

  • The creative problem solving process especially the way Eureka’s occur,  seems mysterious to many.
  • An ingenious technique to probe into the mysterious of the creative process has been devised.
  • This research reveals that at least  in science related problems.

Creative Problems Solving process

  • Today when we get any idea, we often shout the word ‘Eureka’. This famous word is originally attributed to Archimedes, for the invention of measuring the volume of an object with an irregular shape. Once when Hiero had ordered a gold crown, he suspected that the crown was not made of pure gold but also silver. However, he could not prove this. He told Archimedes of his suspicion. 
  • Today when we get any idea, we often shout the word ‘Eureka’. This famous word is originally attributed to Archimedes, for the invention of measuring the volume of an object with an irregular shape.
  • The creative intelligence marked by alternative phases of convergent and divergent thinking, interspersed by incubation when the conscious mind sort of refers the problem to the unconscious mind and illumination or “aha” or “Eureka” experience in which an insight or a fresh perspective or solution suddenly drawn.
  • Explanation of convergent thinking: it consist of those mechanism which help the person get a grip on an ambiguous or complex problem.
  • Where as divergent thinking consist of ways by which the mind generate novels, imaginative, off-beat, and unusual alternatives.
  • There are six steps of this process

1st step. Listing of alternatives.

  • Listing of alternatives without evaluating them is a powerful mechanism of divergent thinking.  So is a associative thinking.

2nd Step . Logical thinking

  • In logical thinking we are concerned about the logical implications of an idea or a fact.
  • In associative thinking, we instead ask the question “what the other fact and ideas does these facts and ideas remind me of

3 step- off-beat analogy

  • If we are concerned about crime in a city, the usual analogical thinking would be, well does the police in landon and Newyork or tokyo deal with the crime?
  • But the unusual idea is with the body how does the body fight with Bactria and viruses?
  • By using this idea for how a city could fight with crime.

4th step redefine or reinterpret some of the elements of the given problem

  • The usual meaning of the square is generally area having four equal side.
  • But the another meaning of the square are, solid, conservative citizen, a place of city and equal strength as in faire and squire
  • So one can doubtless generate many interesting uses of a square

5th step- currently accepted solution to a problem and ask what its opposite could be.

  • The fifth way of generating ideas is to take the currently accepted solution to a problem and ask what is opposite could be.
  • Inoculation is a common way of warding off infection. What could its opposite be?

6th step  generating creative idea is to graft additional properties on to existing solution

  • Take a common chair. If we graft onto it the idea of mobility we could turn it into a wheel chair.

Techniques of Creative Problem Solving

  • There are four stages of problem solving process or technique of creative problem solving
  1. Preparation

Preparation involves the intense investigation of problem in all directions, including a full understanding of what the problem is, the constraints within which it has to be solved, detailed analysis using known procedures etc.

  1. Incubation

Incubation is the letting go of the problem by the conscious mind and allowing it to ferment below the level of consciousness.

This is what we have called problem structuring.

  1. Illumination (incitement or clarification)

Illumination or insight is being struck by an unexpected novel solution in a Eurika like experience.

  1. Verification

Verification is the evaluation or verification of this solution, its refinement, the working out of its implication 

Creative Management Practices

“Our people are our greatest asset.” The sentiment is ubiquitous, but translating this management rhetoric into practice can be a stumbling block even in the best of times.

Human Resource Management

  • Definition :- According to Leon  C. Magginson:-
  • The term human resource can be thought of as “the total knowledge, skills, ability, talent, and aptitude of an organization work force as well as the values, attitude and believes of the individuals involved.
  •   HR are like any other resource which can be used by the management for achievement of its objective


Marketing Management

  • “Marketing is defined as a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with others.” (Philip Kotlar)

Management of Operations

  • “Operation is the process of conversion of input of resources into finish good efficiently within a stipulated period of time.”
  • Operation term is generally used in service sector such as banking, insurance, IT, etc. in which the finish good are intangible.
  •  it was started earlier of 18th century when there was need for increase production
  • There was tremendous change in operation management after world  war two.
  • Various new method were introduced for increase in productivity and also for quality products.
  • In this Japan has taken a lead role for giving a various quality control techniques.
  • Now a days the following are the various quality control techniques used by many organizations
  • SQC statistical quality control
  • JIT just in time (inventory level reduced)
  • Quality circle (group of people)
  • 6 sigma (reduction in the deviation)
  • TQM (improve the quality of each one involve in the production)

Management of Product Design and Growth Strategies

  • An emerging area of important is product/process design. In increasingly competitive, sophisticated markets, attractively designed products or process sell well.
  • Shoddily designed products are left alone on the shelves. Excellent product design requires high order of essence creativity (novel ideas),
  • Elaborative creativity (contextually relevant elaborations of ideas that are unique because of the kinds of components utilised and the way they are fitted together)
  • Expressive creativity (unique aesthetic features)

                                          Unit IV CREATIVE ORGANISATION

Issues and approaches to the Design of Creative Organizations

  • Issues:-
  • The design of the organization is a response to nearly contrary pull
  • The drive of for efficiency in a competitive world (in which costs, output, and quality of outputs must be controlled) pushes the organization towards division of labor, specialization and standardization.
  • But division of labour and specialization create coordination problems, so a control and coordination hierarchy comes into existence.
  •  hierarchy implies vertical differentiation between those with much decision making power and those with little or no such power, which creates problem of motivation  for those at low end.


  • Gary steiner has distinguished between an organization that is creative because it is headed by a creative, entrepreneurial individual who commands and coerces the rest of the organization to comply with his/her vision and ideas, and the genuinely creative organization which is decentralized and in which lots of people display creativity.
  • Cameron ford has emphasized the role of domains in fostering organizational creativity.
  • Domain of the organization include its markets, the outsider professional institutions that educated and train the staff members of the organization; government agencies; labour associations; relevant associations and trade associations.

Organizational design for sustained and successful creativity

  • The design helps the organization, regardless of whether it is commercial or not, to facilitate creativity at all levels and in all functions in technological matter as well as in managerial matters and so forth…..
  • There are three forces are responsible for that are launching a fairly continuous stream of innovation.
  • 1. choosing to operate in certain kind of domain of activity (markets, sectors, niches)
  • 2. Adopting certain kind of goals of major stakeholders (owners, vendors, customers, unions, financial institutions)
  • 3. Management vision.
  • These choices prepare the organization for a burst of creativity
  • But the creativity needs to be channeled into different sorts of concrete actions that reflect innovative rather than dull choices. These action covers certain types
  1.  scanning for opportunities and threats
  2. Innovation based competitive strategy
  3. Innovation based growth strategy
  4. Certain form of control
  5. Motivation system that facilitating innovation
  6. conflict resolution
  7. Culture building that facilitate innovation
  8. Several mechanisms that stimulate innovation.
  • There are domain that sizzle with the new, the unexpected, the complex and the shocking and then there are cradle like domain
  • E.g. American domestic market
  • The choices that favour unfamiliarity, turbulence, sophistication, competitiveness and so forth, would likely turn organization towards innovativeness.

Stakeholder’s expectations

  • Where critical are demanding, the org. tends to undergo powerful conflicting pressure.
  • Demanding customers want best value for money while demanding vendors want ‘fair’ price and steady offtake.
  • Demanding union …
  • Demanding government want vs demanding owner
  • Such contrary pressure can paralyze a lesser management.
  • But a high quality management may feel challenged enough in the face of limited financial, human and technical resources to restore to innovation.

Management’s Grandeur vision

  • Management’s vision are of future grandeur and the grandeur can take many form as like…
  • Management can visualize itself topper
  • Quality, one best known for product, employment desirability.
  • Next is future ‘bigness’ …. Become MNC
  • Noble mission related to society and so forth.
  • So any grandeur vision can make itself innovative 

Innovation inducing scanning

  • The world is having full of opportunities and challenges
  • Management may choose to just look to it’s surrounding environment and concentrate only on development in it’s domain of activity
  • Or it may develop it’s intelligence networks, market research, R & D, long term forecasting etc…

Innovation based competitive strategy

  • The competitive strategy discusses a number of alternative strategies – low price strategy, product differentiation strategy, niche strategy etc..
  • These strategies can be pursued on the basis of existing products that the org. adopted from somewhere else or they can be based on products specially innovated by the org.

Innovation based growth strategy

  • Growth comes from expansion, diversification, joint ventures, acquisitions, and so forth.
  • But then how are these growth based on innovated or customary products?
  • E.g. NTPC of India which is set up by the government of India in the early 1980s this company initially set up 110 (MW) and expand up to 220 mw and 500mw.

Management control to facilitate innovations

  • Creative people generally dislike irksome bureaucratic controls, tight supervision and the like.
  • But control is a necessity in org. life so that the activities remain broadly compatible with the organization’s goals.

Motivational system that facilitate innovations

  • Creativity is always stimulated by ‘intrinsic’ rewards, meaningful tasks, chance to make a real contribution and so forth.

Conflict resolution to facilitate innovation

  • Conceiving and implementing innovations engender many conflicts as to their need, claimed for benefits, costs and mode of implementation.
  • But these conflicts are not necessarily bad when handled well, they cab be quite constructive.

Culture building to facilitate innovations

  • The organization culture that is innovation-friendly is the one that stresses uniqueness, experimentation, brainstorming, risk taking and entrepreneurship, novelty that works, and so forth.

Organizational structure to facilitate innovations

  • Org. structure fulfill many functions like departments and divisions, staff functions etc.
  • A well designed structure that is compatible with strategy or is internally coherent and compatible with the organization’s operating environment tends to contribute to superior org. perform

Mechanisms to spur innovativeness

  • Many powerful mechanisms are available to spur not only innovativeness in general but also high levels of specific forms of management creativity
  • As like essence or idea creativity
  • Elaboration or unique design creativity
  • Expressive or communication creativity
  • Entrepreneurial or novel initiatives and venture creativity
  • Existential or personal growth creativity
  • Empowerment or altruistic creativity.

Mechanism that stimulate organizational creativity

  • The management need to create a platform where all the creativity lovers can come together regardless of function and level, interact with one another, and stimulate each other to create effort in a sort of creative movement.
  • This mechanism is also known as sixteen mechanism
  1. Creative overloading
  • When  a system is overloaded in certain ways, it is likely to look a lot more for innovative ways for measuring up.
  • In the late 1970s, ford motor company…
  • Lost US $ 1.5 billion on revenues of $ 37 billion n 1980.
  • Then he made 400 separate automotive features….
  1. Creative Benchmarking (standard, level)
  2. Parallel group
  3. Knowledge discovery
  4. Creative thinking network

6. Mind mapping

  • Mind mapping is a way of going from the picture to concrete innovations.
  • A mind map is a stimulating display of concepts and activities that clarifies the connections among the concepts and activities related to the complex issues.
  • The process may be triggered by a highly visual metaphor like a drawing or a verbal metaphor such as ‘permeable walls’ or boundary less org.

7. Organizational experiments

  • Many org. conducts small experiments in their org.
  • This can be perform in two groups one is experimental and another is control group.
  • The experimental group under goes in an innovation and control group does not.And we will comes to know whether our innovative idea is fruitful or not only by comparing with control group.

8.Stakeholders councils

  • Creativity and innovation are stimulated when  multiple perspectives are generated
  • But management always often operate with single perspective —- which is made by them.
  • But by using way stakeholder’s councils work is by first identifying the orgs. major internal and external stakeholders.
  • The next step is to request representatives of the stakeholders to be member of the relevant stakeholder’s council.  And the members discuss the performance of the org. regarding class of stakeholders, future direction and suggestions for improvement etc.

9. Creative surveys

  • Professionally managed orgs. Frequently survey their employees to measure morale, job satisfaction and some also try to measure customer satisfactions.
  • But creative surveys are those that either solicit infrequently tapped information, or use survey information in innovative ways.

10. Reverse brainstorming

  • The technique of brainstorming helps to creative ideas. It can also be used for strengthening accepted solutions by tearing them also.
  • But all the strategies are based on the assumptions and frequently many suppositions are not brought out into consideration.
  • In reverse brainstorming the accepted strategy is attacked from the competitor’s point of view.
  • A variant of reverse brainstorming is devil’s advocacy.

11. Intrapreneurship

  • In a turbulent, competitive but opportunity-rich environment the development of star potential product on a fairly constant basis is necessary.
  • One implication is that to grab future opportunities org. must pursue many novel ideas at any point of time.
  • The second implication is that management practices the mortality rate of novel products can save substantial cost. Intrapreneurship meets both requirements.
  • Intrapreneurship is internal entrepreneurship.

12. Kaizen

  • Most orgs. are pyramids with 80% or more of the staff concentrate at the base levels. The people at lower levels are huge potential reservoir of experience and ideas. Unfortunately, this reservoir seldom tapped with innovation.
  • Kaizen is a term that the Japanese use for utilizing this reservoir for little changes and innovations for continuous improvements in operations. 
  • There are various mechanism available for this purpose — suggestion schemes, quality circle, TQM, the Scanlon plan, and so forth.

13. Multiplication of change agents

  • A large force of change agents can quickly bring in not only many innovations but also a culture of innovation.

14. Creative scenario building

  • The technique of Delphi is sometimes used for  scenario building.
  • In this technique a group of experts is required but their identity is not revealed to each other.
  • Each tries to fling himself/herself into the somewhat distant future and tries to visualize what the situation would be then.

15. Creative training

  • There is substantial evidence that creativity training ‘works’, that is, it enhances the abilities we associate with creativity, particularly the capacity for divergent thinking.
  • It especially enhances creative performance on tasks that are similar to those used during the training.

16. Exnovation

  • Continuous changes are important for the success of business.
  • Govt. rule, technology, customer demand etc.
  • Ex. Guru and his pupil.