The 4 cardinal points

  • North

  • South

  • East 

  • West

The continents

  • North America

  • South America

  • Europe

  • Africa

  • Asia

  • Antarctica

  • Oceania


  • True north: The geographic north point to which the Earth revolves. (the north pole).

  • Grid north: Noth based on the design of a map.

  • Magnetic North: The magnetic point of the north to which a compass points.


  • Topographic map: Show the shape of the earth´s surface using elevation contour lines, thanks to these maps we can know in detail the surface of a terrain.

  • Thematical map: Display information, usually with colors, about a specific subject like population density, climate, etc. It informs us of something that happens, such as a natural disaster.

  • Geological map: Shows the different types of rocks and resources on or near the Earth’s surface. It also shows fault lines, foliations, and folds. It is useful to know the territory and also the natural resources.

  • Political map: They are used to show the boundaries of countries, states, cities, and counties amongst other regions.

  • Physical map: This type of map shows physical features as they appear to the eye from above as best as possible in 2D, showing the natural landscape feature of the Earth. They use different colors to show the elevation of land, or sea level elevation, rivers, lakes, seas, etc. Glaciers or ice caps. They are useful because they help us know about the features of Earth and its landforms.

  • Road map: They show roads and other routes of transportation as well as political boundaries. They also generally show points of interest such as tourist sites and recreational facilities.

Anatomy of the sun

Sun´s core: It’s a part of the sun’s inner layer, the hottest part of the sun, Hydrogen is converted into helium here in a process called nuclear fusion,

It is only due to the immense pressure here that 4 positively charged hydrogen atoms can collide to form helium.

Radioactive zone: Part of the Sun’s inner layer. Area of the Sun in which radiation is carried outwards toward the surface in a process that can take roughly 1,000,000 years.

Convection zone: Outermost part of the Sun’s interior. Te In this zone, the radiation meets other ions such as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, calcium, and iron which trap and slow down the radiation’s advance until it convects.

Photosphere: The visible “surface” of the sun. This is part of the convection zone and goes from the surface and extends 100km inwards. This is where we can see things such as sunspots. 

The chromosphere: Thin magnetic layer of the Sun’s atmosphere that holds onto the electrically charged solar plasma. This is where filaments/prominences occur.

The corona: The outermost layer of the Sun’s atmosphere, Visible during a solar eclipse, the Hottest part of the Sun’s atmosphere. Corona: roughly 1,000,000C. Chromosphere: roughly 10,000C. Photosphere: roughly 5,000C

Coronal streamers: The outward-flowing plasma of the corona is shaped by magnetic field lines into tapered forms called coronal streamers, which extend millions of miles into space.

Anatomy of the moon

The anatomy of the moon consists of 6 parts, the first one it’s the crust which is made of anorthosite and is about 50 km thick, then we have the upper mantle which consists of olivine, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene, then we have the middle mantle which consists of denser rocks and elements like iron and magnesium, then we have the lower mantle which is denser than the outer core and much hotter than the other mantles, then we have the outer core which is made of iron and is a bit liquid and also very hot and finally we have the Inner core which is a hot ball of solid iron.

GIS: A system that creates, manages, analyzes, and maps all data types. it provides a basis for mapping and is used in science and in almost every industry. it helps users understand patterns, relationships, and geographic context. Benefits include improved communication and efficiency.

Some examples of uses of GIS are Google maps: Is a system that uses street view imagery to generate various forms of directions. And it is used to find which road people should take in order to get wherever they want. Google earth: Is a system that allows the visualization, assessment, overlay and creation of geospatial data. It is used for remote sensing research, predicting disease outbreaks, natural resource management, and more. Urban Planning: GIS data analyzes urban growth and the direction of the expansion: It is used to develop and design urban areas to meet the needs of a community. The benefit of urban planning is that it helps to transform vision into implementation, using space as a key resource for development. Urban Planning also contributes to having better public health, to having a better economy, reducing vehicle emissions, and a lot of other benefits.


degrees, minutes and seconds 41°24′12.2″N 2°10’26.5″E.