Boh Sheet

A. Short Answer: 3 Types of Decisions w/ 2 Examples For Each

Decisions: Programmed, Non-Programmed, Crisis

Pro- Use a solution already available from past exp. to a routine problem. 1) in HR management, problems are common when big decisions are made such as; page raises, vacation day requests etc. Since they are common managers know how to handle complaints/conflicts that may arise due to this. 2) retail store manager developing a weekly work schedule for part-time employees. the manager must consider how busy the store is likely to be, taking into account seasonal fluctuations in business. then consider worker availability taking into account requests for vacations and other obligations employees may have (School).

Non-Pro- Applies a specific decision crafted for that exact problem. 1) entering a new market, anticipating the impact of new technology such as artificial intelligence on the business and preparing for it, acquiring a company, outsourcing a department. 2) increase in advertising expenditure, effective salesmanship, upgraded technology, quality controls, brand image and reasonable prices expected to increase sales and profits. If despite all this, profits are declining, it requires immediate decision-making and such decisions are non-programmed decisions.

Crisis- An unexpected problem that can lead to disaster if not resolved quickly and effectively. this type of crisis originates externally but can dramatically change the context in which a company operates. 1) being terrorism, mass shootings, or direct threats to harm the company and its employees. 2)something way less high stakes such as a financial crisis, or technological crisis. These examples are weighted differently in the severity scale but both require a higher power to make tough decisions, to aid in the company’s fate.

B. Short Answer: Describe the Benefits of Planning For Individuals and Organizations.

Focus & flexibility- important to the performance of both people & organizations in highly competitive and dynamic environments.

Action orientation- Planning keeps people and organizations focused on the actions that are needed to stay competitive and to become better at what they are doing. Planning helps make people and organizations more oriented toward results, priorities, advantages, and change.

Coordination- Planning helps individuals, groups, and subsystems within the organization to make meaningful contributions to the organization as a whole, even as they pursue specific tasks and objectives.

Control- Planning facilitates control by defining objectives and desired performance results and identifying specific actions through which they are to be pursued.

Time Management- Each day managers are bombarded by a multitude of tasks and demands. they work in a setting of frequent interruptions, crises, and unexpected events. consequently, it can be easy to lose track of objectives and end up wasting time.

C. Short Answer/Essay: What Guidance does the theory provide to managers use only two theories of the four listed.

Maslow– hierarchy of needs states 5 needs at any level is activated only when the next lower-level need is satisfied. The 5 needs being psychological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization. physiological needs being most basic of all human needs: the need for biological maintenance; food, water. safety; need for security, protection, and stability. social; love, affection, and a sense of belonging. esteem; respect, prestige, recognition, self-esteem, and mastery. self-actualization; the need for self-fulfillment; to grow and use abilities to the fullest and most creative extent. Maslow’s theory implies managers who understand and help people satisfy their important needs at work will achieve productivity. for example, managers in non-profit organizations have to create jobs and work environments that satisfy the many different needs of volunteers, since they do not receive monetary compensations. if their work isn’t fulfilling, the volunteers will lose interest and probably re-direct their efforts elsewhere. As it is the same for a manager whose employees do receive monetary compensation, for their jobs,if their needs aren’t fulfilled they may turn to seek employment elsewhere. you can’t be a leader without followers so you have to understand how to motivate people to buy into your agenda. Motivation is what makes employees act in certain ways. This theory guides managers in the realization of what their employees expect and aid them in running a successful workplace.

Herzberg- Herzberg’s Motivation Theory Model argues that there are two factors that an organization can adjust to influence motivation in the workplace. This theory includes two factors, Motivators and Hygiene. Motivators encourage employees to work harder, the factors within the motivator category include, achievement, recognition, the work that has to be done, responsibility, advancement and growth. Achievement A job must give an employee a sense of achievement. This will provide a proud feeling of having done something difficult but worthwhile. Recognition, a job must provide an employee with praise and recognition of their successes. This recognition should come from both their superiors and their peers. Hygiene, won’t encourage employees to work harder, but they will cause them to become unmotivated if they are not present (Not present in the actual job itself, but surround the job). The factors within this category are company policies, supervision, relationships, work conditions, salary, status, and security. Company Policies; should be fair and clear to every employee. They must also be equivalent to those of competitors. Supervision must be fair and appropriate. The employee should be given as much autonomy as is reasonable. Relationships there should be no tolerance for bullying or cliques. A healthy, amiable, and appropriate relationship should exist between peers, superiors, and subordinates. Work Conditions equipment and the working environment should be safe, fit for purpose, and hygiene. Salary the pay structure should be fair and reasonable. It should also be competitive with other organizations in the same industry. Status the organization should maintain the status of all employees within the organization. Performing meaningful work can provide a sense of status.

D. Short Answer: 3 Basic types of teams in organizations– identify and describe w/ cross-functional, self-managing, virtual teams

Cross-functional- a cross-functional team operates with members who come from different functional units of any organization. 

Self-managing – sometimes called autonomous workgroups; have the authority to make decisions about how they share and complete their work. 

Virtual teams – work together and solve problems through computer-based interactions.