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Pleadings are the statements which are the backbone of every civil suit. No civil suit will come into existence if there are no Pleadings. Pleadings have been defined under Order 6 Rule 1 of CPC which states that Pleading shall be Plaint or Written Statements. Plaint is the statements filed by the Plaintiff in a Civil Court to prove his claim whereas Written statements are the statements defined in Order 8 Rule 1 of CPC which states that defendant should file written statements in 30 days from the date of issuance of the summons. Written statements are filed by the defendant for his defense. Plaint has not defined in CPC but it can be termed as pleadings of Plaintiff from which civil suit is initiate  Pleadings should be properly drafted and it should not contain any vague or unambiguous statements. Pleadings are those material facts which helps plaintiff to define the cause of action and defendant to establish his defense in a civil suit.


Pleadings are those material facts which helps plaintiff to define the cause of action and defendant to establish his defense in a civil suit.

Object and Importance of Pleadings

The whole object of pleadings is to bring parties to an issue, and the meaning of the rules (relating to pleadings) was to prevent the issue being enlarged, which would prevent either party from knowing when the cause came on for trial, what the real point to be discussed and decided was

rules to be followed while drafting of pleadings?

1. Pleading should contain the facts but no law should be applied in pleadings. Only the court has the power to apply the law on the basis of fact stated in the Pleadings. In the case of Gouri Dutt Ganesh Lal Firm v. Madho Prasad,1 honorable court stated that Pleadings should be defined in four words – “Plead Facts, not laws”.

2. Pleadings should contain material facts. Parties should avoid using immaterial or irrelevant facts in the Pleadings. In the case of Virender Nath v. Satpal Singh2, the court stated that material facts are those facts which helps Plaintiff to define his cause of action or defendant to strong his defense.

3. Parties should not give the evidence in the pleadings from which facts are proved.

4. Pleadings should contain the material facts in the brief form. Parties should avoid using irrelevant or immaterial statements while drafting the Plaint.

Pleadings are the backbone of legal profession. It is the foundation stone on which case of a party stands. The case of a party must be set out in the pleadings. Pleadings do not only define the issues between the parties for the final decision of the court at the trial, they manifest and exert their importance throughout the whole process of the litigation. Pleadings provide a guide for the proper mode of trial. They demonstrate upon which party the burden of proof lies, and who has the right to open the case. They also determine the range of admissible evidence which the parties should adduce at the trial. They also lay down limit on the relief that can be granted by the Court.

Amendment of Pleadings
Amendment is the formal revision or addition or alteration or modification of the pleadings. Provisions for the amendment of pleadings are intended for promoting the ends of justice and not for defeating them. Rules 17 and 18 of Order VI of Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 deals with provisions regarding amendment of pleadings and failure to amend after order respectively. Rule 17 of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 provides that, “The Court may at any stage of the proceedings allow either party to alter or amend his pleadings in such manner and on such terms as may be just, and all such amendments shall be made as may be necessary for the purpose of determining the real questions in controversy between the parties.

Proviso to the Rule 17 of Order VI of Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 as inserted by the Code of Civil Procedure (Amendment) Act, 2002 restricts and curtails power of the Court to allow amendment in pleadings by enacting that no application for amendment should be allowed after the trial has commenced, unless the Court comes to the conclusion that in spite of due diligence, the party could not have raised the matter before the commencement of trial.

Amendment of pleadings when granted:-

Amendment of pleadings can be granted by the Court in two situations namely, (i) where the amendment is necessary for the determination of the real question in controversy; and (ii) can the amendment be allowed without injustice to the other side.

Amendment of pleadings when refused:-

 Amendment of pleadings can be refused in many circumstances. Following are the situations or circumstances when amendment of pleadings can be refused by the Court:-(32)
(1) When the proposed amendment is unnecessary.
(2) When the proposed amendment causes an injury to the opposite party which cannot be compensated for by costs.
(3) When the proposed amendment changes the nature of the case.
(4) When the application for amendment is not made in good faith.
(5) When there has been an excessive delay in filing the amendment application.

Failure to amend:-

 Rule 18 of Order VI of Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 deals with this issue. It provides that if a party who has obtained an order for leave to amend does not amend accordingly within the time limited for that purpose by the order, or if no time is thereby limited then within 14 days from the date of the order, he shall not be permitted to amend after the expiration of such limited time as aforesaid or of such 14 days, as the case may be, unless the time is extended by the Court.


The court should allow applications for an amendment which is made in good faith and determine the real question of controversy between the parties. The court should not allow an application which is made with the mala fide intention or to delay the proceedings. Amendments of Pleadings is a good law to correct mistakes in pleadings but it should be allowed with due care and diligence.