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Elements of the industrial process: Raw materials: Are transformed by an industrial process into finished products or intermediate goods/ Energy sources: These are the forces obtained from natural to transform raw materials/ Labour: This is the activity carried out by workers and professionals in exchange for a salary/Capital: to make industrial activity possible. Some of the captal comes from profits/technology: this is all the equipment and materials needed for production/the organisation of the company: the company needs to be organised and managed well to obatain quality products at an affordable price. Types of indusatries: The intermediate goods industries make products that are not consumed directly but are used as raw materals for others industries, other name is heavy industry/The consumers goods industries produce products to be sent directly to the market and to consumers, other name: light industry. Types os companies: Large companies, characteristics: THey usually have different owners and form public limited companies, They have a management team that run the company and make important decisions, they often issues shares, set up new companies and ask state credit, They sometimes have their own research teams to improve and update products, they usually carry out market research studies to understand the markets, they have many employees with different levels of expertise. The first Industrial revolution:In the mid-18 century. European regions began to move from artisanal to industrial production, factories were built next to rivers so they could use the energy of running wate, machinesw allowed larger amounts of identical goods to be produced in less time that decreased the price of the products, the change of artisanal to industrial production affected worker`s lives, Promote capitalism as an economic system based on generating maxium profits, also promoted the supply and demand. The second Industrial revolution: Hapenned around 1870. The capitalism system was already established and industrial production deversified(france,japan,USA, netherlands, germanu and italy) adopted the new methods of production, new invension and machines helped increase the speed of industralisation gave rise to new industrial and consumer products, become the main economic activity.



Fordism: Is an industrail production method that takes its name from the ford motor company. Ford-first company to introduces an assembly line. Ford divided the assembly of its cars into specialised tasks, this standardised and mass production process reduced coasts and the final price of cars, This form of production was soon adopted by most manufacturing companies, which encouraged the mass consumption of manufactured goods. Techology fos industry: Information tecnhology and robotics are essential, intensive competitions between companies, advertising and the rapid distribution of products are essencial for a company`s sucess, as isa its capacity for innovation, the Internet and information technology (IT) make it possible to open new markets for industrial products. Post-fordism: Contracts: workers no longer work for years in the same factory doing the same tasks , productions methods: the process of developing a single product may be divided between many factories around the world, the items produced: mass production, which is no longer standardised. Tradicional factors of location:  the main factors of location was the proximity to nergy sources, cities become the prefferred location for industries bc they had a good supply of manual labour. The integration of industrial companies: horizontal: When companies from the same sector unite to focus their activities on one stage of the production process, ex: oil refinery, vertical: companies from the same sector unite to carry out differents stages in the production process, ex: textile sector. Modern location factors: The most convenient location for an industrial company is one that allows the company to reduce costs and increase profits. Industrial location and regional imbalances: axis of the Ebro valley, mediterrean axis, industrial area of Madrid: Andalusia`s, galicia and cantabria, centre of the peninsula and balearic and canary islands. Challenge for industry: industrial productivity is lower than that of the EU: means investing  more money, level of investment in RYD is not enough. Spanish multinational companies in the 21 century:  Characteristics of multinational companies: size, multinational geographical scope, organisation, innovation, marketing, workforce, trading model.



The maquiladoras: In northern mexico therer many maquiladoras, are factories where imported parts are assembled, the main industrial sectors are electronics and automotive industry, maquiladoras are attractive bc of low labour costs. Women india: One is the manual removal of chemicals substances from seaweed, women also work in manual cigarette production known for its miserable working conditions, and the textile industry, characterised by precarious working conditions. Child at the charcoal ovens on smokey mountains: 200 charcoal ovens on Smokey Mountain, families recruit cheap extra labour from children, they have to clean the ovens and cool the ground down