historia

CONCEPTS

The French Revolution is a period  of revolution with violent political and social change thaat eliminate absolute monarchy and the states system of the Ancient Regime. Is considered the1st european bourgeoisie revolution 1789 Jacobins were a group of people that represente the wealthy bourgeoisie. They had moderative views and supported constitutional monarchy and introduceuniversal manhood suffrage. 1789 Constitutional monarchy: type of goverment in which the power of monarch were limited by the constitution 1792. Treaty of Fontainebleau: Treaty which allowed Frech trops to cross Spain in order to occupy Portugal. Thanks to this Napoleon occupy part of Spain 1807Limited male suffrage  voting system in which only white man with a certain amount of propertu could vote. Central council is the council that represent Fernando VII in his absence in areas that had not been occupied by th French.1808Feudal rights are a set of rights that have the nobility to demand payment from the peasants for their lands, fishingFederal republic is a political system consisting of various states with political and legislative autonomy. At a national level they share the same president constitution, fereign policy and army. Civil code is a set of laws that applied aqually to all citizens 



FR REV

CAUSES The influence of enlightment: french intellectuals and bourgeoisie supported enlightment ideas and wanted to put then into practice The economic crisis: French monarchy was heavily in debt because of court´s excessive spendin on partiea and luxuries and because of France´s participation in military conflicts. Poor harvests afte 1770 led to an increase in the price of grain, which is used to make bread. As a result of high bread prices, peasants and urban poor sufferedfrom hunger The social crisis: economic crisis affected the three states differently. The privileged states were able to mantain their income but 3rd state suffred from rising taxes they paid taxes. The political crisis: to improve royal finances, Louis XVI’s ministers suggested that the privileged estates should pay tax. The nobility and clergy refused and demanded that the king call the Estates General. This was the only body that could approve new taxes.Louis XVI governed France as an absolute monarch. He opposed meetings of the Estates General so that the estates could not limit his power and present their demands. However, in the face of the nobility and clergy’s demands, he was forced to call the Estates General in 1789.



EVENTS OF FR REV

The National Assembly
The Third Estate asked for a new voting system in which each representative would vote individually. When the king refused, the Third Estate declared that, as the truerepresentative of the nation, it was forming a National Assembly.porfiamen The king locked the National Assembly out of the Estates General, so they met at a tennis court nearby. They declared that they would not leave the tennis court until France had a constitution.
The Constituent Assembly
Finally, the king agreed to the Third Estate’s demands. A new Constituent Assembly was formed to write a constitution. This was a triumph for the bourgeoisie because the monarchy was no longer absolute.
News that troops were being sent to Versalles led to a riot in Paris on 14 July 1789, in which people attacked the Bastille (where political prisoners were kept) | The popular revolt spread from Paris to other cities and also to the countryside, where peasants attacked the homes of the nobility, burned their archives and refused to pay feudal duties. The revolt in the countryside is known as the Grande Peur (Great Fear). | In response to these events, the Constituent Assembly passed a range of legal reforms which they hoped would satisfy the demands of the peasantry and urban masses. They abolished feudal privileges and the tithes paid by the peasantry to the clergy. The assembly also established equality in the payment of taxes.
In order to solve the French state’s financial problems, the Constituent Assembly confiscated and sold church property.
In 1790 the assembly passed the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. It subordinated the church to the French state. The clergy would now be paid by the state and would be elected by the people. All of these measures led to discontent among part of the clergy and to the emigration of many nobles to other European countries. These people became counterrevolutionaries and began a campaign to defeat the revolution. Louis XVI asked Austria for support against the revolution. He also tried to escape from France but this ended in failure. Louis XVI’s actions caused an increase in popular opposition
to the monarchy. In 1791 the assembly approved the constitution, which established: A constitutional monarchy, in which the powers of the monarch were limited by the constitution. Limited male suffrage – only men with a certain amount of property could vote. The separation of powers – the monarch had executive power; the assembly had legislative power, and the courts had judicial power.


The Legislative Assembly
After the Constitution of 1791 had been adopted, there were elections for the new Legislative Assembly.
Two main political groups emerged: The Girondins represented the interests of the wealthy bourgeoisie. They had moderate views and supported the constitutional monarchy and limited suffrage. They dominated the Legislative Assembly. –The Jacobins represented the petite bourgeoisie. They had more radical views. They wanted to abolish the monarchy, establish a republic and introduce universal manhood suffrage.
During this time France was under constant threat of invasion by Austria and Prussia. Inresponse, France declared war on these countries in 1792. France’s defeats at the hands of the European armies and Louis XVI’s reluctance to accept the revolutionary changes caused unrest among the population. In August1792 the people of Paris revolted and attacked the Tuileries Palace. As a result of this event, Louis XVI was imprisoned, the monarchy was abolished and France became a republic.
The Convention
This was the most radical phase of the revolution. A new assembly called the Convention was elected with universal manhood suffrage.
In 1793 the Convention agreed to execute Louis XVI for treason and he was beheaded by guillotine. The Jacobins took control of the government and imposed a dictatorshipknown as the Terror. The Jacobins were led by Robespierre and supported by the sans-culottes”.
 THE TERROR
The measures that were introduced during the Terror were intended to contribute to the war that France was now fighting against its European enemies: Austria, Prussia, Great Britain and Spain.
They also aimed to end internal revolts led by the counterrevolutionaries. -A popular revolutionary army was formed to fight the war against France’s
European enemies. -There was widespread repression of counterrevolutionaries: anyone
suspected of opposing the revolution could be executed. -The Constitution of 1793 was adopted. It established universal manhood
suffrage. -The Law of Maximum was adopted. It fixed maximum prices for basic products
to stop speculation and make sure that people could buy food.


The Directory and the Consulate
The moderate deputies overthrew the Jacobins in 1794 and in 1795 they adopted a new constitution. This constitution re-established limited male suffrage – a symbol of the bourgeoisie’s power – and it also introduced a new form of government called the Directory. This was a more conservative government that was made up of five members, or directors.
The power and influence of the army increased as a result of the continuing foreign war, and of the threat that the radical revolutionaries might return to power. | In1799 General Napoleon Bonaparte organised a military coup. He aimed to restore peace at home and abroad. | Napoleon established a new form of government called the Consulate. It was made up of three consuls, including Napoleon himself as First Consul. In 1802, Napoleon was named First Consul for Life. This allowed him to introduce reforms to end France’s political and economic instability. By1804, Napoleon had absolute power and the French Revolution had ended.


4. THE NAPOLEONIC EMPIRE (1804 – 1814)
In 1804, Napoleon declared himself Emperor of France (Napoleon I). His rise to power was made posible by his military victories in Europe. In fact, he had become indispensable to France.
Napoleon’s main political achievements were: – his domestic policy consolidated the changes made during the revolution. He established the Civil Code, which was a set of laws that applied equally to all citizens. It introduced new concepts such as civil marriage, divorce, adoption and state-controlled education. Private property was also protected. – His foreign policy made France an empire as a result of his victories over Austria, Rusia and Prussia.
Great Britain was the only country that Napoleon never defeated, despite the Continental Blockade he set up. No country allied with or occupied by France was allowed to import British goods.
Napoleon spread the revolutionary principles of liberty and equality across Europe. He also brought about the introduction of new constitutions that ended absolute monarchy in many European countries.
Napoleon’s greatest desire was to create a united Europe, made up of kingdoms that were dependent on France and were under the control of the French emperor. | From 1812 onwards, Napoleon’s military power began to decline as a result of his failed nvasion of Russia. In 1813 his army was defeated at the Battle of Leipzig by a coalition army that included Sweden, Austria, Prussia and Russia. (1813)
Following a brief exile on the island of Elba, Napoleon returned to France. He was finally defeated at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815) He was exiled to the island of St Helena, where he died in 1821.
After Napoleon’s defeat, the victorious European powers re-established the Ancien Régime for a brief period.
The Napoleonic Empire contained the countries that Napoleon defeated or occupied. – In the countries which depended on France, Napoleon put members of his family on the throne, for example Joseph Bonaparte in Spain, Louis Bonaparte n Holland and Jerome Bonaparte in the Kingdom of Westphalia. – Countries that had been members of the anti-French coalition, such as Austria and Russia, were not ruled by France but they had to support the Continental Blockade against Great Britain.


5. THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE FRENCH
REVOLUTION AND THE NAPOLEONIC EMPIRE
The main consequence of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Empire was the crisis and the subsequent fall of the Ancien Régime.
The end of the Ancien Régime led to a number of important changes.
– Political changes (Other forms of government were established in Europe, such as the constitutional monarchy and the republic. These replaced absolute monarchy.) (Constitutions based on popular sovereignty were adopted. These included limited male suffrage, the separation of powers and protected the rights of the people.) (Political parties began to appear. They represented citizens’ interests and competed in elections.) (The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen established equal rights, but only for men)
-Economic changes: (All citizens now had to pay tax and contribute towards the state’s expenses. The nobility and clergy lost the privilege of not paying tax.) (The law quaranteed free trade and respect for private property. This benefited the bourgeoisie.)
-Social changes (The estates system disappeared because the nobility and the clergy no longer had privileges. Everyone was now equal before the law) (As a result of the introduction of limited male suffrage, the bourgeoisie could now participate in politics.)


6. SPAIN DURING THE REIGN OF CARLOS IV
In Spain, Carlos IV’s reign began in 1788. It coincided with the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Empire.
Carlos IV had many ministers, but the most important was Godoy. Godoy’s relationship with France changed in response to the events of the revolution and empire.
In 1793 Spain joined the first coalition against France as a result of Louis XVi’s execution. However, France defeated the coalition, and in 1795 Spain signed the Peace of Basel with France and left the coalition.
By 1795, the French Revolution had moved in a more moderate direction. As a result, Godoy allied with France against Great Britain. The consequences of this alliance were: (the signing of the Treaties of San Idelfonso (1796 and 1800), in which Spain promised to help France in an invasion of Great Britain. However, in 1805 the French and Spanish fleets were defeated by the British at the Battle of Trafalgar (Cádiz). This marked the end of Spanish naval power.) (The signing of the Treaty of Fontainebleau (1807), which allowed French troops to cross Spain in order to occupy Portugal (an ally of Great Britain). However, Napoleon took advantage of the treaty to occupy part of Spain too.)
Godoy tried to move the Spanish royal family to Sevilla in order to protect them from the French troops. This caused a popular revolt in March 1808 known as the Revolt of Aranjuez. This event forced Carlos IV to dismiss Godoy and abdicate in favour of his son, Fernando VIl
Finally, in May 1808 Fernando Vil and his father Carlos IV were moved to Bayonne in France. There they renounced their rights to the Spanish throne in favour of Napoleon. Napoleon then made his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, king.
Joseph I imposed the Bayonne Constitution, which included enlightened reforms such as the equality of all citizens before the law and in the payment of taxes. Although most of Spain’s population rejected the new constitution, Joseph Bonaparte had some Spanish supporters. These people became known as afrancesados.


7. THE SPANISH WAR OF INDEPENDENCE
The Spanish War of Independence saw the Spanish population fight against the French from 1808 to 1813. 0n 2 May 1808 the people of Madrid rose up against the French ocupation but they failed to overthrow the French. Despite their defeat, other parts of Spain were encouraged by their actions and the Spanish War of Independence began.
7.1. The course of the war
Local and provincial councils (juntas) were formed to fight against the French. These committees were governmental organisations whose members were elected by the people. For the first time in Spain, people were voting to choose their representatives.
These committees were led by the Central Council junta Suprema Central), which represented the absent Fernando VIl in areas that had not been occupied by the French. The Central Council had both executive and legislative power. It managed the war effort and could sign treaties.
The war itself can be divided into several phases.
1808: Spanish forces won several victories, including the Battle of Bailén. This temporarily stopped the French from reaching Andalucia. 1808-1812: querrilla warfare6 began. Napoleon came to Spain to oversee the French occupation. There were sieges in some cities, such as Zaragoza and Gerona. Finally, the French occupied all of Spain except for Cádiz. 1812-1813: the Central Council signed a military alliance with Great Britain. At the same time, Napoleon withdrew some of his troops from Spain in order to send them to Russia. The Anglo-Spanish and Portuguese troops, led by the Duke of Wellington, won victories at Los Arapiles, Vitoria and San Marcial. This forced the French to withdraw from Spain. In December 1813, Napoleon signed the Treaty of Valençay. As a result Fernando Vill returned to the throne.
The consequences of the War of Independence were devastating for Spain. Agriculture was abandoned, and cites and industries were destroyed. In adidition, almost a million people died in the war.


7.2. The Cádiz Cortes
The Central Council took refuge in Cádiz from the advancing French troops. In 1810 it was replaced by the Regency Council, which called the Cádiz Cortes.
The Cádiz Cortes was the first unified cortes in which each deputy (or representative of the Spanish people) had an individual vote, It was no longer based on the estates system, one of the keystones of the Ancien Régime. Each deputy represented the whole nation rather than the estate into which he had been born.
There were 223 deputies who were elected by the Spanish and American provinces. Most of them were clergy, military men, lawyers and merchants, so the bourgeoisie were well-represented.
Different groups emerged in the Cortes, based on their political views:
The supporters of Enlightenment ideas, who wanted to end the Ancien Régime in Spain, and establish a constitutional monarchy with popular sovereignty and the separation of powers. – The absolutists, who wanted the king to be restored as an absolute monarch.
On 19 March 1812, the Cádiz Cortes approved Spain’s first constitution, theConstitution of 1812. It was a victory for the Enlightenment ideas of liberty and equality.
 THE CONSTITUTION OF 1812
The constitution established the following principles:
(A constitutional monarchy) (popular sovereignty with limited male suffrage) (The separation of powers: executive power (the monarch), legislative power (the monarch and the Cortes) and judicial power (the courts of justice)) (Guaranteed rights and freedoms equality before the law, the right to privacy, freedom of the press and the prohibition of torture.) ( Catholicism as the official state religion- a concession to the absolutists.)