1.Characteristics of totalitarism

An authoritarian political system.  In this system, power was concentrated in the hands of the state, led by a charismatic leader who demanded blind obedience: Il Duce Mussolini in Italy, or the Führer Hitler in Germany. There was neither personal freedom nor political pluralism. There was only one party, which subdued any opposition violently. 

Economic and social control. The state directed the economy and declared itself anti-capitalist and anti-communist. Moreover, it controlled society through propaganda, censorship of the media and education.

Rejection of equality. They considered members of the single party to be superior to others, men superior to women, and certain races superior to others. 

Irrational thinking. They defended fanaticism and blind obedience, and used symbols, emblems, songs and uniforms to unify their followers. 

Ultra-nationalism. They exalted the greatness of the nation, and demanded new territories in the name of reuniting the nation or of creating a Lebensraum (‘living space’ in German) to allow the nation to survive.

Militarism. They defended a strong military and war as instruments of power, prestige and progress for their people.

1.1 Causes of the revolution.  

The crisis of the tsarist empire At the beginning of the 20th century, Russia’s empire stretched from the Baltic to the Black Sea and from Poland to the Pacific Ocean.  It was ruled by the tsars of the Romanov dynasty and was in a state of turmoil.  

• Political discontent was due to the autocratic government of the tsars and gave rise to a political opposition formed by liberal bourgeois parties and revolutionary Marxists, such as the Bolsheviks.  

• The economic and social discontent was due to the contrast between the rich minority, owners of land and factories, and the extremely poor peasants and the industrial proletariat.

1.2The revolutions of 1905 and 1917
• In 1905, general discontent combined with the fact that Russia had been defeated by Japan in the Russo-Japanese war set off a
revolution that forced the Tsar to create a parliament, or Duma, and implement certain reforms. However, the autocracy remained.

• In 1917, the Russian army’s losses in the First World War and the mass suffering that was caused sparked two revolutions:
- The bourgeois February Revolution of 1917 deposed Tsar Nicholas ll and established a republic. The liberal and bourgeois provisional government promised reforms, but their sluggishness decision to remain in the world war led to their downfall. The Bolshevik October Revolution of 1917, organised by radical
Marxists, or Bolsheviks, overthrew the provisional government and placed their leader Lenin in power, who was supported by the
soviets, or councils of workers, peasants and soldiers.in 1918, the Bolsheviks began to call themselves the Communist Party and took Russia out of the war by signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany (1918). They then drafted a Constitution, which transferred large estates to the peasants, gave workers control of factories and nationalised banks and transport. In 1919 they founded the Third International. Lenin’s actions were met with the opposition of armed counter-revolutionary groups These groups formed what was known as the White Army -supported by the United Kingdom, France and Japan which battled the Bolshevik Red Army, led by Lean Trotsky.-
The result was a bloody civil war (1918 to 1921) in which eight million people lost their lives.The Red Army’s victory consolidated the revolution. 

1.3 The consequences of the revolution. The USSR
Lenin’s government (1921-1924). Lenin held all the political power. In 1922 he created a political organisation called the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), made up of Russia and other Asian republics. It was organised as a federal state and adopted a New Economic Policy (NEP), which combined communist and capitalist policies. Thanks to this policy, the Soviet economy made a recovery

• Stalin’s government (1927-1953). Lenin’s successor began a new era, called ‘Stalinism’. A totalitarian political system was established which used state violence to purge society of his opponents. The economy became controlled by the state. Land was collectively owned and farmed by agricultural cooperatives or kolkhozy or by salaried peasants on state-owned estates or sovjoses. Large industrial estates were built for metallurgical, chemical and arms production and the banking system and other services remained nationalised. Moreover, the state planned each area of production through five-year plans, which established objectives to be fulfilled in that time frame. Through all of these measures the USSR became a major economic and military power.                      2.1 The Roaring Twenties. In the years from 1924-1929 the economy went through a period of prosperity known as the Roaring Twenties. Although Europe benefited from this period, it was the United States which experienced the greatest prosperity, having become the world’s
top economic power, based on three pillars:

• Industrial development. It was made possible thanks to a new system of production on assembly lines, by which goods such as automobiles and
other products could be mass-produced.

* An increase in consumption. Due to advertising and new and easy purchase methods, such as instalment payment plans and bank loans.
- Stock market investments. These became a quick way to get money for private individuals, companies and banks that invested by purchasing shares, causing share prices to continuously go up.       //  -The prosperity of this period led people to trust the capitalist system, which had allowed them to enjoy a high standard of living with readily available goods and services.

2.2 The 1929 crisis.The Crash of 1929 at the New York Stock Exchange

Economic prosperity came to an end in 1929.This was the year in which the United States experienced a severe economic crisis caused by excess production in relation to consumption. During the First World War, the U.S. agricultural industry, along with other major industries, had dramatically increased its production in order to supply their allies in the war. However, by the end of the war, demand in these countries decreased, creating an accumulation of stock in agricultural products and industrial goods that had not been sold. This caused prices to fall, and companies suffered major losses. The real situation of many companies therefore did not correspond to the high value their stock had on the market. In 1929, this situation created an atmosphere of distrust and the rise of share prices slowed. On 24 October 1929, a date known as Black Thursday, fear of an even further drop in prices caused many investors to sell stocks at an extremely fast pace, some stocks actually having no buyers. As a result, prices plummeted and Wall Street crashed, driving many companies out of business and causing great fortunes to vanish. The economy (II). The Great Depression> 3// 3.1 The widespread impact of the crisis In the United States, the stock market crash sparked a widespread depression. Millions of people lost their money and their savings. Countless banks went bankrupt, since they had invested their funds in buying stock or granting credit to acquire shares. Many factories and farmers also went bankrupt, due to the drop in sales and the lack of credit. Foreign trade was paralysed due to protective measures. From 1930 to 1931, the crisis spread from the U.S. to the rest of the world, affecting Europe and countries in Asia and Latin America. It thus became a global crisis, known as the Great Depression, and one of the biggest economic crises in history. 3.2 The consequences of the crisis The crisis affected all aspects of life. Economically, agricultural and industrial production dropped as demand fell, and foreign trade slowed as protectionism became more general. In turn, the capitalist system was strongly rejected by the middle class and workers. Population growth slowed considerably, as did transoceanic migration, since recipient countries limited entries in order to reduce unemployment. Unemployment and inequality increased in society. 

The optimism of the Roaring Twenties had been replaced by pessimism and a lack of trust in progress. • In politics, democracy was discredited by the depression, since it had proven unable to prevent it, and new ideologies appeared as answers to the problem, such as totalitarianism among the middle class and communism among the working class.

3.3 Proposals for a solution Each country tried to solve the crisis by its own formulas.  Some promoted autarchy. economic self-sufficiency, emphasising the use of domestic resources and limiting imports as much as possible.

• However, the majority of countries adopted the ideas of the British economist John Maynard Keynes, who argued for state intervention in the economy to stimulate investments, employment and consumption. This was the case in the United States, where in 1933 the new president Franklin D. Roosevelt enacted a series of economic and social programmes known as the New Deal. It included regulations for banks, forcing them to grant loans at low interest rates,) subsidies for landowners and businesses to limit production, a reduction in the maximum number of weekly working hours, minimum wages, unemployment insurance, public works, etc.

The rise of my C totalitarianism > 4// 4.1 The crisis of democracy and the rise of totalitarianism During the interwar period, the catastrophe of the First World War and the post-war difficulties helped breed a new current of thought against the democratic system, considering that parliamentarianism had failed,

• Democracy was maintained in the United States (presidential system) and in European countries (parliamentary system) with more liberal traditions, such as the United Kingdom and France. –Other states in central and southern Europe adopted authoritarian regimes with one ruler, or totalitarian regimes with one party that had total control over society. Totalitarian regimes had the social support of the middle class, who were unhappy about the decrease in their standard of living caused by the crisis; big businesses that were eager to halt the rise of communism; many former soldiers and frustrated jobless citizens; and the most conservative sectors of society. Two examples totalitarianism were Fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany. 

Fascism and 5 Nazism 5.1 Fascism in Italy The causes of the birth of Fascism in Italy were largely due to dissatisfaction with the peace agreements established after the First World War, as well as the post-war situation, plagued by an economic crisis, unemployment, inflation and social unrest, expressed through revolutionary movements that frightened the most conservative sectors of society. Fascism was the creation of journalist Benito Mussolini, who founded the National Fascist Party in 1921, using paramilitary groups -Italian Combat Squad, or Blackshirts -to quash the workers’ movement. He gained support from large landowners, small bourgeoisie, the Church and King Victor Emmanuel III. In 1922, the successful intervention of the Italian Combat Squad against the trade unions and workers’ strikes allowed Mussolini to claim power. To pressure the government, he organised a March on Rome with the Blackshirts and was subsequently named prime minister by the king. Once in power, Mussolini established a Fascist dictatorship. In doing so, he took complete control over the country, restricted freedoms, prohibited political parties, repressed trade unions and any other opposition using secret police (OVRA), directed the economy and controlled every aspect of social life through propaganda and censorship. 5.2 Nazism in Germany The causes that led to Nazism in Germany can be traced to discontent during the Weimar Republic (1918-1933) with the humiliation of the Treaty of Versailles, as well as the post-war situation: economic crisis, unemployment and social unrest expressed through revolutionary movements. Nazism arose around the ex-soldier Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers’ Party, founded in 1920, and had a paramilitary group (Storm Troopers, or SA), who fought the communists. Hitler won the support of a large part of the middle class, who had been devastated by the 1929 economic crisis, and of the capitalists who despised the communists. In the elections of 1932, the Nazi Party received 13.8 million votes, and Hitler was named Chancellor of Germany. Once in power, he ended the Weimar Republic and founded the Third Reich, through which he established a fierce dictatorship, dissolved the other parties, prohibited trade unions and eliminated fundamental freedoms and rights.  He also took control of the economy..etc All of these actions would eventually lead to the Second World War

The Second World War (1). Causes 6 6.1 Participants On 1 September 1939 the Second World War began. The conflict lasted almost six years, until 5 August 1945, and is considered to be the most important war in the history of humanity. The warring countries formed two large groups: on the one hand, the western powers, called the Allies, led by the United Kingdom and France, and on the other hand the Axis powers, led by Germany and Italy. During the war (1941) both sides gained allies, such as the Soviet Union, Japan and the United States, giving the war a global character. 6.2 Causes of the conflict /General causes There were many general causes of the war: Germany’s quest for revenge, since it considered it had been humiliated by the Treaty of Versailles by having to pay an indemnity to the Allies and reduce its army and naval fleet; the increase in totalitarian ideologies and the rise of militarism; nationalism, which was the source of territorial claims; and an economic depression and general impoverishment caused by the 1929 crisis. Immediate causes and the spark The immediate causes of the war boil down to the aggressive military policy by the totalitarian powers in the years leading up to the war. Japan invaded Manchuria in 1932, Italy annexed Ethiopia and Albania in 1935 and 1939, respectively, and on the pretext of incorporating territories with German populations into its empire, Germany annexed Austria and the Czech region of Sudetenland in 1938, and practically all of Czechoslovakia in 1939. Neither the League of Nations nor the Western democracies stepped in to contain these military aggressions; rather they granted concessions to the Axis powers in order to avoid conflict. The spark that set off the war was Germany’s invasion of Poland without a previous declaration of war after signing a non-aggression pact with the USSR. This act, in turn, caused the United Kingdom and France to declare war against Germany. 7.2 The consequences of the war • Lives lost and material destroyed. As a consequence of the battles. the bombing of villages and cities, and the retaliation that occurred, roughly 50 to 60 million people lost their lives, the majority of whom were civilians, and 70 million people were wounded and mutilated. Furthermore, after the war, there were more than 40 million people forcibly displaced due to border modifications. The war also destroyed natural areas, cities, factories, and infrastructure, such as bridges, ports, railways,etc. 

• Political repercussions. European monarchies disappeared. Totalitarian regimes were defeated and democracies were once again established. On an international and political level, a new world order was imposed, led by the two superpowers that emerged victorious from the war: the United States and the USSR. • Territorial changes. After the peace treaties, a new map of Europe had been drawn, and many countries either gained or lost territory.

T7 The Bourbon Restoration. Political system 1

1.1 The period of the Restoration In 1875 the monarchy was restored under Alfonso XII of Bourbon (1875-1885), son of Isabel II. The Bourbon Restoration in Spain was made possible by two processes: .

Through the political manoeuvring of Antonio Cánovas del Castillo, the leader of the future Conservative Party, which helped achieve Queen Isabella II’s abdication in favour of her son Alfonso II, the support of the bourgeoisie and the army, anxious for political stability. On 1 December 1874, Cánovas wrote a manifesto, signed in Sandhurst, where he promised a constitutional government.

• Through pronunciamiento (military revolution) by General Martínez Campos, 29 December 1874, in Sagunto, Alfonso XII was proclaimed king. After the death of Alfonso XII in 1885, the Restoration was maintained by the regency of Maria Christina (1885-1902) while her son, Alfonso XII, was still a child. 1.2 How the political system worked The political system during the Restoration rested on two fundamental pillars: the Constitution of 1876 and the practice of rotation in power (turnismo) of the political parties. SI The Constitution of 1876 The Constitution of 1876 was a moderate constitution, flexible enough to allow any party to govern without the need to change it. It established a broad range of rights, which could be restricted depending on the governing party. It also shared sovereignty between the Cortes and the king, and established suffrage, which could either be universal or limited depending on the party in power. 

 Rotation of political parties Turnismo was the practice of alternating power between the Conservative Party, the former Moderate Party, led by Cánovas del Castillo and supported by the wealthy classes, and the Liberal Party, the former Progressive Party, led by Práxedes Mateo Sagasta and supported by the bourgeoisie and urban middle class. When the government started to show signs of tension, the king appointed the leader of the opposition to form a new government, who held and rigged elections to give his party the victory. Parties relied on methods of electoral fraud, such as what was known as the pucherazo, in which ballot papers would kept in a ‘pot’ and added or taken from the ballot box depending on the desired outcome; the Lazarus vote, or votes by the deceased who were on the electoral roll; and the cuneros vote, in which voters would register to vote in regions outside the territory which corresponded to them. They also used local political bosses or caciques, who were people with economic and social power in the region who pressured voters into voting one way or another. Political problems during the Restoration > 2/ 2.1 Internal problems The political system implemented during the Restoration faced serious problems. ▸ Opposition to turnismo Political parties such as the Republicans, Carlists or Socialists did not accept the electoral system established by the Constitution of 1876. • The Republican party was split into different divisions, led by Castelar, Pi i Margall, Ruiz Zorrilla and Nicolás Salmerón. All of them proposed a Republican state model. • The Carlist party declared another war against Alfonso XII. Their strongholds in Maestrazgo, Seo de Urgel and the north were taken by the army. • The Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party (PSOE) was founded by Pablo Iglesias in 1879 and was consolidated by the huge surge in the labour movement during this period. Labour movement The labour movement gained momentum from the recognition of the right to assembly and association by the Constitution of 1876 and the law on associations in 1887. N ‘Ba Socialism spread after the General Union of Workers (UGT) was founded in 1888. It took root mainly in Madrid, the Basque Country and Asturias. Anarchists, in turn, established the Federation of Workers’ Societies of the Spanish Region (FTRE). It was especially popular with the Catalonian industrial workers and Andalusian agricultural workers.

▸ Regionalism and local nationalism These two tendencies arose out of the centralist system of the Restoration. the Catalan nationalism demanded official status for the Catalan language, the establishment of Catalan political parties and courts, and Catalan autonomy. In 1892, its proposals were declared in the Bases de Manresa, written by Prat de la Riba. Sk • Basque nationalism, driven by Sabino Arana, was Catholic and conservative, and defended regional charters and traditions. In 1897, the Basque Nationalist Party (PNV) was founded. 12 U • Galician nationalism was a response to economic and social problems.  2.2 The ‘crisis of 1898′. A foreign problem with domestic repercussions The loss of the last Spanish colonies began with an uprising in Cuba in 1894, known as the ‘grito de Baire’, or ‘call for revolution’, and a revolt in the Philippines in 1896. The uprisings were a result of poor economies in both colonies and Spain’s refusal to grant the colonies more autonomy. 3 Do s topic a) Th b) Re Writ minu The rebels had the support of the United States. The US declared war on Spain after the sinking of the US Navy battleship Maine in the Havana Harbour in April of 1898, accusing Spain of having caused the blast. War erupted in the Pacific (the Philippines) and the Atlantic (Cuba and Puerto Rico). In both conflicts, Spanish fleets were destroyed by the US. Spain was forced to sign the 1898 Treaty of Paris, where they recognised the independence of Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines. The war caused the death of 50 000 soldiers and had a negative impact on Spanish exports. It also led to a deep moral crisis among the Spanish population, causing what was known as regenerationism, which was an intellectual and political movement that sought to solve the country’s deep-rooted problems, such as political corruption.